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Tromba L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | D'Ilio S.,National Center for Chemical Substances | Blasi S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Russo G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Berni A.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Trace Elements and Electrolytes | Year: 2014

Objective: Some studies have shown that the oxidation of some elements (Fe, Cu, Cr, Co, and others) and the alteration of the homeostasis of the metal-ion may cause oxidation stress, resulting in lipid peroxidation, protein alteration, and other complications which are the basis for numerous diseases including the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The study is focused on the concentrations of arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in the blood of patients with AAA, compared with subjects affected by peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The same metals were also assayed in the blood of subjects with AAA before and after aneurysm correction with endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). Material and methods: 56 patients of either sex were divided in 2 groups: a) 26 patients with AAA (21 treated by EVAR); b) 30 patients with PAD syndrome. The metal concentration in the blood was quantified by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS). Results and discussion: the mean values of element concentrations in subjects with PAD were slightly lower than those found in patients suffering from AAA while the level of Se in AAA were higher than in PAD patients. In the comparison between the pre- and post-stent implantation of EVAR treatment the values of Mg, Cu, Zn, and Ca were stable after 6 months; after 12 months, there was a reduction of the blood concentration; after more than 12 months, the level of metals and, in particular, Mg, Cu, and Zn, was even lower. Cr and Se values increased in the first 6 months, then decreased between 7 and 12 months to end with a new rise after 12 months. Pb always showed a positive difference after 6 months and this was confirmed after 12 months. The level of Cd seemed to rise in the first 6 months to remain stable over time. The behavior of manganese was significant, showing a clear increase in concentration since the installation of the endovascular implantation. Conclusions: The results of the present work show that the elimination of the hemodynamic stress and the reduction of the aneurysm changed the quantity of metals in the blood. Possible change in the concentration of some metals after EVAR may be also used in future in planning pharmacological strategies to slow down or stop the progressive expansion of the aortic tissue. ©2014 Dustri-Verlag Dr. K. Feistle. Source

Mancinelli R.,National Center for Chemical Substances | Barlocci E.,National Center for Chemical Substances | Palminiello S.,IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana | Saso L.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Indian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Oxidative stress is the imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of the biological systems to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Disturbances in the normal redox state of tissues can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell including proteins, lipids and DNA. Furthermore, some ROS can even act as messengers through a phenomenon called redox signaling. In humans, oxidative stress is involved in many pathogenic mechanisms triggering aging processes and affecting organs as liver and brain. In the present paper, the role of oxidative stress is considered in relation to three neurodegenerative pathologies those are the most common in western countries and have analogies in brain damages notwithstanding different etiologies: i) Alcohol abuse by environmental etiology, ii) Down Syndrome by genetic etiology, and iii) Alzheimer's disease by age-related etiology. Recent studies have described the results about application of different biomarkers of oxidative stress to study these brain pathologies. The present paper deals with the diagnostic applications of the oxidative-stress biomarkers like malondialdehyde, heat shock protein, ROS and retinol binding protein in clinical handling of patients and discusses their diagnostic power taking into account cost/benefit ratio too. Source

Cristaudo A.,Dermatological Institute San Gallicano | D'Ilio S.,National Center for Chemical Substances | Gallinella B.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Mosca A.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | And 5 more authors.
Dermatology | Year: 2013

Background: Skin-lightening products are increasingly common in European cities. These products may contain substances that are banned under EU regulations as they can induce adverse effects, including cutaneous and systemic reactions (e.g., mercury, hydroquinone and topical corticosteroids). Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of women regarding skin-lightening products and to quantify the potentially harmful substances in the products used. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study among 82 non-Italian women visiting an outpatient facility in Rome, Italy. The women completed a questionnaire on product use, side effects and risk awareness. We performed patch tests among a subgroup of 48 women who presented with contact dermatitis. We also quantified the allergenic and toxic substances in the 14 products reported, using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for metals and high-performance liquid chromatography for hydroquinone and topical corticosteroids. Results: Out of the 82 women, 33 used skin-lightening products; about one fourth of these women were aware of potential risks. Three cosmetic creams and two soaps contained high concentrations of metals (Cr, Ni and Pb); hydroquinone was found in three creams and one oil. The only topical corticosteroid detected was dexamethasone, in one product. More than half of the women in the clinical evaluation had irritant contact dermatitis (i.e., negative response to patch test). Conclusions: Among immigrant women in Rome, the use of skin-lightening products seems to be fairly common, and some of these products contain potentially hazardous substances. Consumers must be informed of the potential risks, and EU regulations must be more strictly enforced. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Menichini E.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Abate V.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Attias L.,National Center for Chemical Substances | De Luca S.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | And 8 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

The artificial-turf granulates made from recycled rubber waste are of health concern due the possible exposure of users to dangerous substances present in the rubber, and especially to PAHs. In this work, we determined the contents of PAHs, metals, non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), PCDDs and PCDFs in granulates, and PAH concentrations in air during the use of the field. The purposes were to identify some potential chemical risks and to roughly assess the risk associated with inhalation exposure to PAHs. Rubber granulates were collected from 13 Italian fields and analysed for 25 metals and nine PAHs. One further granulate was analysed for NDL-PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs and 13 PAHs. Air samples were collected on filter at two fields, using respectively a high volume static sampler close to the athletes and personal samplers worn by the athletes, and at background locations outside the fields. In the absence of specific quality standards, we evaluated the measured contents with respect to the Italian standards for soils to be reclaimed as green areas. Zn concentrations (1 to 19g/kg) and BaP concentrations (0.02 to 11mg/kg) in granulates largely exceeded the pertinent standards, up to two orders of magnitude. No association between the origin of the recycled rubber and the contents of PAHs and metals was observed. The sums of NDL-PCBs and WHO-TE PCDDs+PCDFs were, respectively, 0.18 and 0.67×10 -5mg/kg. The increased BaP concentrations in air, due to the use of the field, varied approximately from <0.01 to 0.4ng/m 3, the latter referring to worst-case conditions as to the release of particle-bound PAHs. Based on the 0.4ng/m 3 concentration, an excess lifetime cancer risk of 1×10 -6 was calculated for an intense 30-year activity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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