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Breiding M.J.,National Center for Injury Prevention and Control | Thompson W.W.,National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities | Dhingra S.S.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | Parks S.E.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2015

Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse and family dysfunction, are linked to leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality. Most prior ACE studies were based on a nonrepresentative patient sample from one Southern California HMO. Purpose To determine if ACE exposure increases the risk of chronic disease and disability using a larger, more representative sample of adults than prior studies. Methods Ten states and the District of Columbia included an optional ACE module in the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, a national cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults. Analysis was conducted in November 2012. Respondents were asked about nine ACEs, including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and household member mental illness, alcoholism, drug abuse, imprisonment, divorce, and intimate partner violence. An ACE score was calculated for each subject by summing the endorsed ACE items. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, weighted AORs were calculated for self-reported health conditions given exposure to zero, one to three, four to six, or seven to nine ACEs. Results Compared to those who reported no ACE exposure, the adjusted odds of reporting myocardial infarction, asthma, fair/poor health, frequent mental distress, and disability were higher for those reporting one to three, four to six, or seven to nine ACEs. Odds of reporting coronary heart disease and stroke were higher for those who reported four to six and seven to nine ACEs; odds of diabetes were higher for those reporting one to three and four to six ACEs. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of child maltreatment prevention as a means to mitigate adult morbidity and mortality.


Pfeiffer C.M.,National Center for Environmental Health | Hughes J.P.,National Center for Health Statistics | Lacher D.A.,National Center for Health Statistics | Bailey R.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

The NHANES has monitored folate status of the U.S. population from prefortification (1988-1994) to postfortification (1999-2010) bymeasuring serumand RBC folate concentrations. The Bio-Rad radioassay (BR)was used from1988 to 2006, and the microbiologic assay (MBA) was used from 2007 to 2010. The MBA produces higher concentrations than the BR and is considered to be more accurate. Thus, to bridge assay differences and to examine folate trends over time, we adjusted the BR results to be comparable to theMBA results. Postfortification, assay-adjusted serumand RBC folate concentrationswere 2.5 times and 1.5 times prefortification concentrations, respectively, and showed a significant linear trend (P < 0.001) to slightly lower concentrations during 1999-2010. The postfortification prevalence of low serum (<10 nmol/L) or RBC (<340 nmol/L) folate concentrations was ≤1%, regardless of demographic subgroup, compared with 24% for serum folate and 3.5% for RBC folate prefortification, with substantial variation among demographic subgroups. The central 95% reference intervals for serum and RBC folate varied by demographic subgroup during both pre- and postfortification periods. Age and dietary supplement use had the greatest effects on prevalence estimates of low folate concentrations during the prefortification period. In summary, the MBA-equivalent blood folate concentrations in the U.S. population showed first a sharp increase from pre- to postfortification, then showed a slight decrease (17% for serum and 12%for RBC folate) during the 12-y postfortification period. TheMBA-equivalent pre- and postfortification reference concentrationswill inform countries that plan folic acid fortification or that need to evaluate its impact. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.


Tsang B.L.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education | Devine O.J.,Carter Consulting Inc. Contractor for CDC | Cordero A.M.,National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities | Marchetta C.M.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism is a risk factor for neural tube defects. The T allele produces an enzyme with reduced folate-processing capacity, which has been associated with lower blood folate concentrations. Objective: We assessed the association between MTHFR C677T geno-types and blood folate concentrations among healthy women aged 12-49 y. Design: We conducted a systematic review of the literature published from January 1992 to March 2014 to identify trials and observational studies that reported serum, plasma, or red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations and MTHFR C677T genotype. We conducted a meta-analysis for estimates of percentage differences in blood folate concentrations between genotypes. Results: Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 6 studies that used the microbiologic assay (MA) to measure serum or plasma (S/P) and RBC folate concentrations, the percentage difference between genotypes showed a clear pattern of CC > CT > TT. The percentage difference was greatest for CC > TT [S/P: 13%; 95% credible interval (CrI): 7%, 18%; RBC: 16%; 95% CrI: 12%, 20%] followed by CC > CT (S/P: 7%; 95% CrI: 1%, 12%; RBC: 8%; 95% CrI: 4%, 12%) and CT > TT (S/P: 6%; 95% CrI: 1%, 11%; RBC: 9%; 95% CrI: 5%, 13%). S/P folate concentrations measured by using protein-binding assays (PBAs) also showed this pattern but to a greater extent (e.g., CC > TT: 20%; 95% CrI: 17%, 22%). In contrast, RBC folate concentrations measured by using PBAs did not show the same pattern and are presented in the Supplemental Material only. Conclusions: Meta-analysis results (limited to the MA, the recommended population assessment method) indicated a consistent percentage difference in S/P and RBC folate concentrations across MTHFR C677T genotypes. Lower blood folate concentrations associated with this polymorphism could have implications for a population-level risk of neural tube defects. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.


PubMed | National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities., National Center for Injury Prevention and Control and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of preventive medicine | Year: 2015

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse and family dysfunction, are linked to leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality. Most prior ACE studies were based on a nonrepresentative patient sample from one Southern California HMO.To determine if ACE exposure increases the risk of chronic disease and disability using a larger, more representative sample of adults than prior studies.Ten states and the District of Columbia included an optional ACE module in the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, a national cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults. Analysis was conducted in November 2012. Respondents were asked about nine ACEs, including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and household member mental illness, alcoholism, drug abuse, imprisonment, divorce, and intimate partner violence. An ACE score was calculated for each subject by summing the endorsed ACE items. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, weighted AORs were calculated for self-reported health conditions given exposure to zero, one to three, four to six, or seven to nine ACEs.Compared to those who reported no ACE exposure, the adjusted odds of reporting myocardial infarction, asthma, fair/poor health, frequent mental distress, and disability were higher for those reporting one to three, four to six, or seven to nine ACEs. Odds of reporting coronary heart disease and stroke were higher for those who reported four to six and seven to nine ACEs; odds of diabetes were higher for those reporting one to three and four to six ACEs.These findings underscore the importance of child maltreatment prevention as a means to mitigate adult morbidity and mortality.


Shapiro A.D.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | Soucie J.M.,National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities | Peyvandi F.,University of Milan | Aschman D.J.,American Thrombosis and Hemostasis Network | Dimichele D.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011

Rare coagulation disorders (RCDs) present a considerable and multifaceted public health risk. Although inherited RCDs affect a minor segment of any local healthcare delivery system, their global impact is major and highlight the challenges of delivering healthcare services to any rare disease population. These include but are not limited to: (1) a general lack of knowledge about and familiarity with the genetic and clinical implications of the disorder among affected patients, and both urgent and specialty care providers; (2) the potential for preventable morbidity and mortality related to delayed diagnosis and treatment; (3) the lack of safe and effective therapies; and (4) minimal research activity to establish and improve standards of care. A multiagency national partnership has established an approach to address these problems through development of a clinical, genetic, and treatment-related web-based data-collection tool that will: (1) generate a reliable, sufficient knowledge base for these disorders; (2) facilitate new product licensure through subject identification and access to comparative historical treatment data; and (3) serve as an effective tool for outcomes research and post-licensure product surveillance. To maximize impact, this database is being harmonized with a European data-collection effort. Database development and harmonization is in progress. A resource library was completed and disseminated to major national and international bleeding disorder websites to provide state-of-the-art patient and provider education on each RCD. We believe that this model is effective and adaptable to other rare conditions. © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.


Brener N.D.,National Center for HIV AIDS | Kann L.,National Center for HIV AIDS | Shanklin S.,National Center for HIV AIDS | Kinchen S.,National Center for HIV AIDS | And 3 more authors.
MMWR Recommendations and Reports | Year: 2013

Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as school-based state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance. This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire, the addition of new populations, and the development of innovative methods for data collection.

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