National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis

Leiden, Netherlands

National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis

Leiden, Netherlands
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Kustatscher E.,Naturmuseum SUdtirol | Heunisch C.,Landesamt fur Bergbau | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.H.A.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.H.A.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis
Palaios | Year: 2012

Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions at Thale during the late Ladinian (Middle Triassic) are assessed using both the plant megaflora and palynoflora. These two datasets are necessary because these two different types of assemblages were subjected to different taphonomic biases and together provide a more complete appraisal of Triassic conditions in the study area. The megafossil remains represent a (par)autochthonous flora with large, well-preserved leaf and shoot fragments that indicate relatively limited transport. Most fragments probably belonged to plants growing on river banks. The composition of the rich and diversified megaflora indicates lush vegetation typical of an environment without water stress and probably a high water table. On the other hand, quantitative analyses of the palynological data using different methods (morphogroups and Sporomorph EcoGroup or SEG) show a strong dominance of bisaccate pollen. River or wetland plants are well represented by trilete, laevigate spores and multicellular algae. Since the spores were normally water transported along with the sediment and the pollen grains were wind transported over long distances, but also by water, there are two possible interpretations: (1) the local flora was dominated by ferns within a larger, conifer-dominated, and possibly forested area; (2) time related, the megaflora shows a short-term signal that corresponds to a humid spell during the generally more arid period of Middle and Late Triassic, while the palynoflora shows a longer-term, regional signal. © 2012 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Kustatscher E.,Naturmuseum Sudtirol | Pott C.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | van Konijnenburg-van Cittert J.H.A.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis | van Konijnenburg-van Cittert J.H.A.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2011

Several European species of the Triassic fern genus Symopteris Xu are studied and the genus is subsequently subject to revision. Moreover, the botanical affinity of the genus is discussed and its relation to the Marattiales debated. Symopteris fronds have a typical fasciculate venation, usually a crenulate pinnule margin and contracted pinnule bases; in addition, the margin of the fertile pinnules is recurved to supposedly protect the sporangia. Most of the fossils have originally been attributed to the genus Bernoullia Heer, a junior synonym of Bernoullia Oliver (extant Bombacaceae). So far, eight species could be identified, three from Europe [. Symopteris helvetica (Heer) Xu in Xu et al., Symopteris lunzensis (Stur ex Krasser) Xu in Xu et al., Symopteris rumpfii (Schenk) nov.comb.], one from Kazakhstan (Symopteris aktjubensis Brik) and four from East Asia [. Symopteris zeilleri (P'an) Xu in Xu et al., Symopteris pecopteroides (Feng et al.) nov. comb., Symopteris densinervis Xu et Duan in Xu et al., Symopteris pseudolobifolia (Yang in Chen et al.) nov. comb.]. One additional species assigned earlier to Bernoullia (i.e. Bernoullia waehneri Stur) has to be attributed to another genus. The oldest known representatives of Symopteris occurred in the Ladinian of Europe; during the Upper Triassic, the genus increased in species number in Europe and Asia, while the latest occurrence is in the Rhaetian of Vietnam. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kustatscher E.,Naturmuseum Sudtirol | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.H.A.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.H.A.,Netherlands and Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie - Abhandlungen | Year: 2011

This is the third modern day paper on the Middle Triassic flora from Thale to be published, dealing with the ferns. Two species belong to the genus Asterotheca; Asterotheca merianii (BRONGNIART) STUR is one of the most common elements in the flora, while Asterotheca thalensis n. sp. is rarer in the assemblage. Both species yielded in situ round, pseudomonolete granulate spores. Danaeopsis marantacea (PRESL in STERNBERG) SCHIMPER is the most common fern in the Thale flora; for the first time in situ spores from this species are described. Rhacophyllum crispatum (MÜNSTER in STERNBERG) n. comb, might be the aphleboid structure belonging to Danaeopsis marantacea. Todites gaillardotii (BRONGNIART) n. comb, is here described for the first time from the Erfurt Rormation (Ladinian) of Germany. Moreover, its in situ spores are documented as well. Neuropteridium grandifolium (SCHIMPER et MOUGEOT) COMPTER is just a rare element in this flora. Clathropteris meniscioides BRONGNIART and Phlebopteris sp. from Thale are earliest representatives of these genera known so far; all three species are represented only by sterile frond fragments. Cladophlebis remota (PRESL) VAN KONIJNENBURG-VAN CITTERT et al. is relatively rare, while Cladophlebis leuthardtii LEONARDI is very rare in this flora; fertile frond fragments are still missing for both species. Ror the first time Sphenopteris schoenleiniana (BRONGNIART) PRESL in STERNBERG is represented by sterile and fertile material in the Germanic Basin. Sphenopteris vel Cladophlebis sp. A might be shade leaves of Sphenopteris schoenleiniana. Chiropteris lacerata (QUENSTEDT) RÜHLE VON LILIENSTERN is a very rare element in this flora and only represented by sterile frond fragments, in contrast to Symopteris rumpfii (SCHENK) KUSTATSCHER et al. The latter yielded in situ spores (round, trilete, smooth). ©2011 E. Schwelzerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

Kustatscher E.,Naturmuseum Sudtirol | Kelber K.-P.,Frobelstr. 31 | van Konijnenburg-van Cittert J.H.A.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis | van Konijnenburg-van Cittert J.H.A.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2012

During the Middle-Upper Triassic the fern genus Danaeopsis was widely distributed in both hemispheres. Danaeopsis fronds are simple pinnate with elongate pinnae characterised by a strong midrib and secondary veins that anastomose near the margin. The sporangia of the fertile pinnae are roundish and organised in two parallel rows between the veins. From the main collections of Triassic plants in Europe more than 750 specimens belonging to this genus have been studied and this study has been implemented with literature data. After this study four different species can be distinguished in Europe, based on the angle of pinna attachment to the rachis and the venation pattern: Danaeopsis angustifolia (pinnae attached perpendicularly, almost no anastomosing near the margin), Danaeopsis marantacea (pinnae attached perpendicularly, anastomosing of secondary veins covering up to 1/3rd of the lamina), Danaeopsis lunzensis (pinnae attachment acute, anastomosing of secondary veins covering up to half of the lamina) and Danaeopsis fecunda (pinnae attachment acute, veins anastomose scarcely near the margin). From three species, D. marantacea, D. lunzensis and D. fecunda, trilete in situ spores were extracted which differ only in dimensions. Danaeopsis belongs to the Marattiaceae and represents, together with Symopteris, the ferns with the biggest fern fronds during the Middle-Late Triassic. Although no complete fronds were found so far, the fronds probably reached a length of 1-2. m. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Kustatscher E.,Naturmuseum Sudtirol | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.H.A.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.H.A.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis
Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie - Abhandlungen | Year: 2010

This is the second paper on the Middle Triassic flora from Thale, dealing with the seed ferns and cycadophytes. Scytophyllum bergeri BORNEMANN is one of the common elements in the flora, in contrast to Sagenopteris sp. which is rare in the assemblage. However, it is the first evidence of Sagenopteris for the German Basin. The specimen described as ?Peltaspermum sp. is the only peltasperm ovuliferous organ known to date with attached ovule-bearing discs from the Middle Triassic of Europe. The cycad Apoldia tener (COMPTER 1883) ZIJLSTRA et al. 2009 (formerly Sphenozamites tener COMPTER) is by far the most common fossil plant in the assemblage. Nilssonia cf. neuberi STUR ex POTT et al. is relatively rare. The genus Bjuvia is emended to accommodate more species of large entire leaves characterised by amphistomy and cycadalean stomatal morphology. This includes Bjuvia thalensis n. sp., which is a common element in the Thale flora but is unknown from elsewhere. Narrow, long entire leaves from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Europe have been described under the name Taeniopteris angustifolia SCHENK, but have now been transferred to Taeniopteris kelberi n. sp. for nomenclatorial reasons. The macrosporophyll Dioonitocarpidium pennaeformis (SCHENK) RÜHLE VON LILIENSTERN also occurs in the Thale flora. Two cycadalean leaf species (Apoldia tener and Bjuvia thalensis) from Thale flora sometimes have stomata with only two subsidiary cells instead of the usual 4-6, a feature that in gymnosperms occurs mainly in the Bennettitales. ©2010 Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

Gassmann D.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis
International Journal of Odonatology | Year: 2011

Pseudagrion lorenzi sp. nov. is described from New Britain island, Papua New Guinea. Male and female characters are illustrated by means of scanning electron microscopy.A differential diagnosis with Pseuda-grion civicum Lieftinck, 1932 from New Guinea and Pseudagrion incisurum Lieftinck, 1949 from the Solomon Archipelago is provided. The female of P. incisurum is described for the first time. © 2011 Worldwide Dragonfly Association.

Wheeler E.A.,North Carolina State University | Jae Lee S.,Korea forest Research Institute | Baas P.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis
IAWA Journal | Year: 2010

Wood anatomical data for all three extant genera of the Altingiaceae and 23 of the 27 extant genera of the Hamamelidaceae were compiled in an effort to find features distinctive to genera, tribes, or subfamilies within these families. All genera studied have diffuse porous wood (except Corylopsis which tends to be semi-ring porous), vessels are predominantly solitary and narrow (< 100 (μm, usually <50 μm) and angular in outline, vessel elements are long (>800 μm) with scalariform perforation plates with average bar numbers of 9-44, intervessel pits are mainly scalariform to opposite, vessel-ray parenchyma pits are scalariform with slightly reduced borders and usually are in the square to upright marginal ray parenchyma cells, rays are heterocellular and narrow, usually 1-3-seriate. Although the wood anatomy of both families is relatively homogeneous, it is possible to key out many genera using a combination of qualitative (presence/absence and location of helical thickenings in vessel elements and fibers, crystal occurrence, axial parenchyma abundance, degree of ray heterogeneity) and quantitative features (number of bars per perforation plate and ray width). Helical thickenings are present throughout the vessel elements in three genera (Loropetalum, Altingia, Semiliquidambar) and are restricted to the vessel element tails in two genera (Corylopsis, Liquidambar). Loropetalum has helical thickenings in ground tissue fibers as well. Axial parenchyma abundance varies from scarce to relatively abundant diffuse to diffuse-in-aggregates. One clade of the tribe Fothergilleae (Distylium, Distyliopsis, Sycopsis, Shaniodendron, Parrotia, Parrotiopsis) has more abundant axial parenchyma and is characterized by narrow, usually interrupted bands of apotracheal parenchyma. Nearly exclusively uniseriate rays occur in some species of Hamamelis and in Exbucklandia, Chunia, Dicoryphe, and Fothergilla. These data on extant Altingiaceae and Hamamelidaceae not only provide information relevant for systematic, phylogenetic and ecological wood anatomy and wood identification, but also give context for reviewing the fossil woods assigned to them. A new combination is proposed for the Miocene Liquidambar hisauchii (Watari) Suzuki & Watari from Japan: Altingia hisauchii (Watari) Wheeler, Baas & Lee.

Donovan S.K.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis | Lewis D.N.,Natural History Museum in London
Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society | Year: 2010

Fossil crinoids are common in the Much Wenlock Limestone Formation of the type area in Shropshire, yet remain poorly known because of their fragmentary preservation. Calceocrinid disparids are recognized from Wenlock Edge for the first time on the basis of distinctive brachial ossicles. More proximal brachials have a broad, U-shaped adoral groove and an axial canal; distal ossicles have a narrower, V-shaped adoral groove and no axial canal. What remains surprising is that the most distinctive element of the calceocrinid endoskeleton, the fused basal circlet, remains unknown from Wenlock Edge. A crinoid pluricolumnal displaying an irregular line of three pits that show a progressive increase in size was infested while the crinoid was alive; this is indicated by the swollen column and deformities of columnals. Such infestations are rare in the British Silurian. The pits may have been made by a single infesting organism which migrated up or down the column in response to the influence of gravity. © 2010 Yorkshire Geological Society.

Donovan S.K.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis | Ewin T.A.M.,Natural History Museum in London
Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society | Year: 2010

A small collection of well-preserved crinoid attachment structures from the Upper Devonian Pilton Formation of north Devon indicates the presence of two distinct species. Sostronocrinus mundus (Whidborne) lived attached to an unlithified sedimentary substrate by the vertical insertion of a robust, terminal rhizoidal holdfast abetted by robust, unbranched radices oriented laterally or curved distally. There was a strong differentiation of morphology between the radicular attachment and the more proximal column, which lacked radices. Eumorphocrinus porteri (Whidborne) attached to a similar substrate by an irregularly heteromorphic, tapering radicular runner bearing branched radices that promoted permanent attachment close to the sediment surface. These radices were probably developed on at least part of the more proximal column. The highest columnals of the dististele do not bear radices and, therefore, are not nodals. The dististele was previously unknown in both of these species. © 2010 Yorkshire Geological Society.

Janssen A.W.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis | Little C.T.S.,University of Leeds
Palaeontology | Year: 2010

Eleven randomly chosen outcrops in the Miocene Pakhna Formation of Cyprus were sampled for holoplanktonic Mollusca. Four species of Heteropoda were found, and 24 of Pteropoda, a substantial increase from the two species recorded until now from the Miocene of Cyprus. One pteropod species, Peracle charlotteae sp. nov. (Gastropoda, Pseudothecosomata), is introduced. Age assignments based on holoplanktonic molluscs for the 11 localities are as follows: Langhian (Alassa 1-4), (Serravallian?) Tortonian to Messinian (Episkopi 1), Tortonian (Agios Tychon, Tokhni and the Maroni Marlstone of Khirokitia 1-2) and Tortonian to Early Messinian (Episkopi 2). These age determinations in some cases are at odds with those from previous publications based on calcareous nannofossils and Foraminifera. The sediments underlying the Amathus Channel outcrop yielded insufficient fauna for definitive dating, but we suggest are younger than Late Serravallian. At some localities, particularly in the Alassa area, pteropod assemblages are strongly variable on a bed-by-bed basis, and this offers possibilities for future refined biostratigraphical interpretations. This is the first substantial holoplanktonic mollusc fauna described from the eastern Mediterranean basin and allows correlation with assemblages in the central Mediterranean and elsewhere. © The Palaeontological Association.

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