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Shakhatreh Y.,National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension | Haddad N.,University of Jordan | Alrababah M.,Jordan University of Science and Technology | Grando S.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Ceccarelli S.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2010

Wild barley, Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell., is the progenitor of cultivated barley. Almost unanimously the center of diversity is considered to be in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, where wild barley grows under a wide range of environmental and climatic conditions. Jordanian wild barley is expected to harbor genes useful for the improvement of cultivated barley, particularly those associated with tolerance to drought. This study evaluated 103 wild barley accessions collected from different areas of Jordan along with 29 cultivated barley genotypes for several morphological and agronomical traits. The Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum C. Koch accessions were grouped into six populations according to the longitude, latitude, altitude, and rainfall zone of the collection site, and the cultivated barley in one population. The evaluation was conducted during the 2004-2005 growing season under field conditions in three locations in Jordan; namely, Khanasri, Ramtha, and Maru with 123. 0, 222. 9, and 429.2 mm annual rainfall, respectively. We used an unreplicated design with two systematic checks (the cultivars Rum and Mu'ta) each repeated 15 times. The results showed the existence of high variability among the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum C. Koch accessions for most of the traits, especially for plant height, tiller number, days to heading, days to anthesis, peduncle length, and peduncle extrusion. Plant height, earliness, peduncle length, and peduncle extrusion were found to be adaptive traits under drought conditions and several superior genotypes for each trait were identified. Genetic variation within population was much higher than between populations. Clustering of populations was according to their ecological geographical pattern. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

Wallberg A.,Uppsala University | Han F.,Uppsala University | Wellhagen G.,Uppsala University | Dahle B.,Norwegian Beekeepers Association | And 8 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

The honeybee Apis mellifera has major ecological and economic importance. We analyze patterns of genetic variation at 8.3 million SNPs, identified by sequencing 140 honeybee genomes from a worldwide sample of 14 populations at a combined total depth of 634×. These data provide insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis of local adaptation in this species. We find evidence that population sizes have fluctuated greatly, mirroring historical fluctuations in climate, although contemporary populations have high genetic diversity, indicating the absence of domestication bottlenecks. Levels of genetic variation are strongly shaped by natural selection and are highly correlated with patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation. We identify genomic signatures of local adaptation, which are enriched in genes expressed in workers and in immune system- and sperm motility-related genes that might underlie geographic variation in reproduction, dispersal and disease resistance. This study provides a framework for future investigations into responses to pathogens and climate change in honeybees.

Ammari T.G.,Al - Balqa Applied University | Al-Hiary S.,Al - Balqa Applied University | Al-Dabbas M.,National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2013

Vegetative bioremediation of saline calcareous soil (EC1:1 11.01 dS m-1) was practised through growing fodder beet (Beta Beta vulgaris var. magnum) and millet (Panicum spp.) in soil columns. Beet was grown at a planting density of 4427 plants m-2, whereas millet was grown at two planting densities: 5202 (M1) and 8928 (M2) plants m-2. Some plants were irrigated with 233 μ S cm-1 water throughout the experiment (70 days), while for others non-saline water was replaced with saline water (2.52 dS m-1) at the middle of the experiment. The control was leaching of uncropped soil. Beet had higher ash content and efficiently extracted higher amount of salts (particularly Na and Cl) along with their aboveground biomass than millet under the two irrigation regimes. Millet grown at high planting density had higher ash content and extracted higher amount of salts (particularly Cl) than those at low planting density. Bioremediation, particularly in the case of millet (M1), considerably enhanced soil hydraulic conductivity as compared with leaching treatment; thus, facilitating the removal of some soluble salts beyond the root zone. Accordingly, soil electrical conductivity was considerably decreased by 54-69% compared with the untreated soil. It is concluded that mainly fodder beet is a potential candidate for efficient bioremediation of saline calcareous soils. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Qadir M.,SRI International | Bahri A.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | Sato T.,Tottori University | Al-Karadsheh E.,National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension
Irrigation and Drainage Systems | Year: 2010

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the driest region of the world with only 1% of the world's freshwater resources. The increasing competition for good-quality water has cut into agriculture's water share but since the use of freshwater for domestic, industrial and municipal activities generates wastewater, the volume of wastewater used in agriculture has increased. About 43% of wastewater generated in the MENA region is treated; a relatively high percentage compared to other developing-country dominated regions. This is because of the perceived importance of wastewater as a water resource and several oil-rich countries with the resources to treat wastewater. The MENA region has an opportunity for beneficial reuse of wastewater but few countries in the region have been able to implement substantial wastewater treatment and reuse programs. The major constraints leading to seemingly slow and uneven reuse of wastewater are: inadequate information on the status of reuse or disposal of wastewater and associated environmental and health impacts; incomplete economic analysis of the wastewater treatment and reuse options, usually restricted to financial feasibility analysis; high costs and low returns of developing wastewater collection networks and wastewater treatment plants; lack of wastewater treatment and reuse cost-recovery mechanisms and lack of commitment to support comprehensive wastewater treatment programs; mismatch between water pricing and regional water scarcity; preference for freshwater over wastewater; and inefficient irrigation and water management schemes undermining the potential of wastewater reuse. However, some countries such as Tunisia, Jordan, and Israel have policies in place that address wastewater treatment through a range of instruments. Policymakers in these countries consider use of treated wastewater to be an essential aspect of strategic water and wastewater planning and management. With flexible policy frameworks addressing rapid demographic changes and increasing water scarcity in the MENA region, water reuse has great potential if integrated with resource planning, environmental management and financing arrangements. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

de Miranda J.R.,Pennsylvania State University | de Miranda J.R.,Queens University of Belfast | de Miranda J.R.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Scott Cornman R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 6 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2015

Around 14 distinct virus species-complexes have been detected in honeybees, each with one or more strains or sub-species. Here we present the initial characterization of an entirely new virus species-complex discovered in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) and varroa mite (Varroa destructor) samples from Europe and the USA. The virus has a naturally poly-adenylated RNA genome of about 6500 nucleotides with a genome organization and sequence similar to the Tymoviridae (Tymovirales; Tymoviridae), a predominantly plant-infecting virus family. Literature and laboratory analyses indicated that the virus had not previously been described. The virus is very common in French apiaries, mirroring the results from an extensive Belgian survey, but could not be detected in equally-extensive Swedish and Norwegian bee disease surveys. The virus appears to be closely linked to varroa, with the highest prevalence found in varroa samples and a clear seasonal distribution peaking in autumn, coinciding with the natural varroa population development. Sub-genomic RNA analyses show that bees are definite hosts, while varroa is a possible host and likely vector. The tentative name of Bee Macula-like virus (BeeMLV) is therefore proposed. A second, distantly related Tymoviridae-like virus was also discovered in varroa transcriptomes, tentatively named Varroa Tymo-like virus (VTLV). © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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