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Sunmonu M.O.,University Of Ilorin | Olaniyan A.M.,Federal University, Oye-Ekiti | Aduba J.J.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2014

Empirical models were developed to predict some selected antioxidants present in stored oranges under a modified atmosphere. Three sets of four different types of passive evaporative cooling structures made of two different materials; clay and aluminium were designed and constructed as part of the study. One set consisted of four separate cooling chambers. Two cooling chambers were made with aluminium container (cylindrical and rectangular shapes) and the other two were made of clay container (cylindrical and rectangular). These four containers were separately inserted inside a bigger clay pot inter-spaced with clay soil of 5 cm (to form tin-in-pot, pot-in-pot, tin-in-wall and wall-in wall) with the outside structure wrapped with jute sack. The other two sets followed the same pattern with interspacing of 7 and 10 cm respectively. The set with 7 cm interspace served as the control in which the interspace soil and the jute sacks were constantly wetted at intervals of two to four hours depending on the rate of evaporation with water at room temperature. The other two sets (5 and 10 cm interspaced soil) were constantly wetted with salt solution (Table salt (Nacl)) at the same interval to keep the soil in moist condition. Freshly harvested matured oranges were used for the experiments and the temperature and relative humidity were monitored daily. The vitamin A, C and E, bacterial and fungal counts of this produce were determined at intervals of three days for a period of 21 days. Mathematical models (using essential regression software package) were developed to predict the vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E contents of the stored oranges at various conditions considered in the study. The existence and sufficiency of the regression models given in the equations were also examined using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the multiple regression models. The models were found to be at 5% level of significant. The models were validated using pair-wise T-test and the results of the pair-wise shows that there is no significance difference between the mean of observed and the predicted for all the models developed. The Radj 2 value obtained were 82.43%, 86.63% and 76.48% for vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E contents respectively for the stored oranges.

Fashina A.B.,University of Nigeria | Saleh A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Akande F.B.,University of Nigeria
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2014

The study was aimed to determine physical properties of three varieties of groundnuts commonly cultivated in Nigeria. The varieties such as Samnut 10,Samnut 14 and Samnut 18 were used to investigate varietal differences for seed weight, average length, thickness, width, geometric mean diameter, degree of sphericity, volume, true densities, surface area, aspect ratio and hydration capacity ofpods and kernels at 8% moisture content. The average properties of pods for the selected varieties were found to be pod mass of 1.62, 1.31, and 1.40 g; volume of 5.53,4.35 and 4.94 mL; geometric mean diameter of 18.1, 16.43, and 17.90 mm; surface area of 10.37, 8.50, and 10.08 cm²; sphericity of 0.56%, 0.64%, and 0.60%; aspect ratio of 28.26, 38.76, and 39.41, and a hydration capacity of 0.36, 0.49, 0.70 g/pod for Samnut 10, Samnut 14, and Samnut 18, respectively. The respective values of the kernels for these varieties were determined to be kernel mass of 0.52, 0.47, and 0.57 g; volume of 0.74, 0.57, and 0.70 cm³; geometric mean diameter of 5.05, 4.47, and 5.02 mm; surface area of 0.42, 0.53 and 0.41 cm²; sphericity of 0.35, 0.39, 0.35; aspect ratio of 62.18, 69.90, 60.77 and a hydration capacity of 0.30, 0.17, 0.28 g/kernel.Correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the degree of association between different parameters.The results of this study showed that each of thesevarieties has different physical properties and thus require careful study for successful design and development of optimal processing equipment. © 2014 Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.

Oyelade O.A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Oni K.C.,University Of Ilorin
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2013

In order to boost and encourage commercial farming operation in Nigeria, three models of TAK tractors, namely, TAK DI 750, TAK DI 75 and TAK DI 90 in the range of 37.3 kW (50 hp), 55.95 kW (75 hp) and 67.14 kW (90 hp), respectively, were evaluated at the National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM), Ilorin, Kwara State. The objectives were to determine their suitability for use in Nigerian agriculture and for transforming the country's agricultural sector by changing the present farming system from subsistence farming to commercial farming. Evaluation of the three models was carried out at the experimental farm of the National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM) using randomized block completed design (RBCD) statistical plot layout to determine operational effects on fuel consumption, travel reduction, tractive efficiencies, as well as field capacity coverage. Results show that fuel consumption was higher for ploughing operations varying between 5.90 L/ha and 6.80 L/ha than harrowing operations varying between 0.85 L/ha and 1.20 L/ha for the three tractor models. So also were the results of field efficiencies which varied between 73.56% and 84.74% and 75.36% and 84.55% for ploughing and harrowing operations, respectively. Also, the travel reduction and field operational efficiencies were higher for TAK models DI 750 than the other two models, the results for fuel use and draught force did not follow such trend, being governed more by soil conditions at the time of investigation. The results further shows that tractor size has overriding influence on fuel consumption and tractive performance while soil condition greatly influenced the performance of the three tractor models. Among the three sets of TAK tractor models tested using the same tractor operator to operate these tractors, TAK DI 750 tractor during ploughing operation performed better in terms of economic value by having the lowest fuel consumption rate of 5.90 L/ha, lowest drawbar power of 8.08 kW and highest field efficiency of 84.74%. This was immediately followed by TAK DI 75 tractor which recorded a fuel consumption rate of 6.30 L/ha, a drawbar power of 9.49 kW and a field efficiency of 78.77%. Finally, TAK DI 90 tractor recorded a fuel consumption rate of 6.80 L/ ha, a drawbar power of 9.72 kW and a field efficiency of 73.56%.

Oyelade O.A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Oni K.C.,University Of Ilorin
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013 | Year: 2013

Tillage, the mechanical manipulation of soil, demands a huge amount of energy in order to accomplish various tasks during field operation. Field tests and evaluation were conducted on 37 different tractor makes and models with matching implements at four different sites representing the three regions of Nigeria between 2005 and 2011. Implements used for the trials were tractor mounted 3-bottom disc plough and 18-blade off-set disc harrow. Each tractor was operated on 1.0 hectare (100 m x 100 m) farm land in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Parameters measured included tractor power rating, travel speed, effective and total time of operation, field efficiency, field capacities (effective and theoretical), depth and width of cut, soil moisture content, soil bulk density and soil resistance to cone penetration, respectively in order to determine energy requirement for each tractor-implement combination. A mathematical model for predicting energy requirement for the tillage operations was developed. The resulting model equation was validated using paired sample t-Test. Results obtained showed that the model equation adequately predicted energy requirement for tillage operations.

Oni K.C.,University Of Ilorin | Oni K.C.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Oyelade O.A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013 | Year: 2013

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the second most important food staple in Africa, after maize, in terms of calories consumed. Nigeria is among the three largest cassava producing countries in Africa. In 2002, Nigeria recorded an unsatisfactory growth rate of 1.2 per cent. However, Nigeria's economic performance rebounded, averaging growth at 7.3 per cent between 2002 and 2007. The pressing challenge for the nation lies in maintaining and improving current economic growth indicators and translating these recent gains into improved standard of living for the majority of its citizens. Poverty within Nigeria remains staggeringly high, averaging 50 per cent and 70 per cent of its general and rural population, respectively, living on less than US$1.25 a day. Agriculture still remains the dominant employer of labour of over 70 per cent and accounting for about 31 per cent of the nation's Gross Domestic Product(GDP). Cassava is the chief source of dietary food energy for majority of the people living in the lowland tropics, and much of the sub-humid tropics of West and Central Africa. To maintain cassava's competitiveness in world markets, further research is required to increase yields, reduce production costs, broaden the range of starch functional properties and increase the starch content and nutritional value of its root. In addition, processing efficiency needs to be improved, new processes and products developed, and new markets for cassava-based products identified. This can only be achieved by the integration of production, processing and marketing, through active collaboration of the various institutions involved, and through an effective partnership between the public and private sectors. Therefore, its production and utilization must be given prime attention in food policy. This paper aims at presenting an overview of mechanization of cassava in Nigeria and measures to take in promoting its production and processing for value addition and revenue generation.

Akande F.B.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Adejumo O.A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Adamade C.A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Bodunde J.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Locust bean fruit is normally processed into food condiment, which is popularly taken in the western part of Africa and it is used as a spice that gives an African meal a pleasant flavor. Processing of Locust beans is faced with various difficulties that affect both the small and the large scale production. This paper reviews the traditional methods of production of fermented locust beans, the problems associated with it and the possible ways of overcoming these problems in order to bring this health friendly seed into the limelight of large scale production. The processing of locust bean fruits to food condiment involves depodding, cleaning, boiling, dehulling, washing, re-cooking and fermentation. Some constraints are identified in the production and consumption of the condiment such as low production due to rudiment equipment, high wood consumption and poor production practices. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Ahaneku I.E.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2010

This article presents the conservation of soil and water resources and its effective utilization as key to sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This requires policies and methods that emphasize the conservation of these natural resources base. Poverty, intensification and extensification of marginal lands were identified as major threats to the sustainability of soil and water resources. The study recommends home grown: soil and water conservation practices, and water quality management techniques that are vital to ameliorate the problems of soil degradation, erosion and water quality. It is advocated that education and training of the stakeholders remains the best option for the adoption of the suggested sustainable technologies in order to avert food crisis in Nigeria. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Olaoye J.O.,University Of Ilorin | Adamade C.A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2015 | Year: 2015

An instrumented dryer was designed and constructed using electric heater as source of heat. The dryer consists of a drying chamber, trays, chimney, electric heater, blower with centrifugal fan and prime mover, thermostat with probe to get the accurate measurement of the temperature inside the dryer. The dryer of overall dimension 1610 mm by 600 mm by 600 mm consists of four trays in the drying chamber insulated with lagging material of 30 mm thickness. It is heated with one heater of 1.8 KW connected with 2 hp centrifugal fan. The dryer was developed considering the efficiency, low cost and operator. The dryer has a capacity of 15.96 kg. The variation in weights in interval of 1 hr for the three drying temperatures 45°C, 50°C and 55°C varies accordingly with the different quantity dried. Copyright © (2015) by the American Society of Agricultural & Biological Engineers All rights reserved.

Olaoye J.O.,University Of Ilorin | Olotu F.B.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2015 | Year: 2015

The dehulling of cowpeas is a long and tedious process which involves detaching of cotyledon from the hull. Dehulling of cowpea seeds influences the quality of the final products. Some dehulling machines have been developed by institutions like National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization, (NCAM), Ilorin and University of Ilorin, Ilorin, (Unilorin). These machines developed by these institutions do not have separating chamber for the hull and cotyledon and those that have are not functioning well. This reason prompted the need to design and fabricate an improved cowpea dehuller. An improved hydro-separating cowpea dehuller was designed, fabricated and tested. Some of the components designed for and fabricated are hopper for feeding in the material, dehulling unit where dehulling operation takes place, cleaning unit where separation of cotyledon and hull take place and the shafts for auger and agitator for transmission of power to carry out the necessary operations. The test performance carried out on the machine showed that it's effectively dehulling the cowpea seeds and separating the hull from the cotyledon. It gave 95.06% as the highest dehulling efficiency and 70.98% as lowest dehulling efficiency of the machine. The cleaning efficiency of dehuller was 70.21%; the feed rate of the machine was 157.02kg/hr while output capacity of the machine was calculated to be 18.63kg/hr./batch. Copyright © (2015) by the American Society of Agricultural & Biological Engineers All rights reserved.

Ogunjirin O.A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Agbetoye L.A.S.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Ademosun O.C.,Federal University of Technology Akurre
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2016

In the design of a viable and appropriate cassava tuber harvester, the lifting coefficient of cassava tuber was determined to be a function of lifting force, lifting time, speed of lifting, weight of the tuber and soil surrounding the tuber. This paper described the design, construction and operation of an instrumented rig which allows the simulation of cassava tuber harvesting in the field. The rig consisted of the gantry, chain block, chains, hook/fisher, variable speed electric motor, 5 kN load cell and DI-1000U data logger. The developed rig was tested in a matured cassava field located at the experimental farm of the National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization, Ilorin, Nigeria in 2012. The rig effectively uprooted cassava tuber in the field in about 10 seconds and gave the maximum force of 678 N at soil moisture content of 11.96% db and uprooting speed of 8 mm/s. The developed rig should be utilized to generate force required to harvest cassava tubers at various soil moisture content and speed of uprooting at various soil types. The data generated could be utilized as base line data for the development of viable hand held and tractor drawn cassava harvester. © 2016, Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.

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