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Fashina A.B.,University of Nigeria | Saleh A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Akande F.B.,University of Nigeria
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2014

The study was aimed to determine physical properties of three varieties of groundnuts commonly cultivated in Nigeria. The varieties such as Samnut 10,Samnut 14 and Samnut 18 were used to investigate varietal differences for seed weight, average length, thickness, width, geometric mean diameter, degree of sphericity, volume, true densities, surface area, aspect ratio and hydration capacity ofpods and kernels at 8% moisture content. The average properties of pods for the selected varieties were found to be pod mass of 1.62, 1.31, and 1.40 g; volume of 5.53,4.35 and 4.94 mL; geometric mean diameter of 18.1, 16.43, and 17.90 mm; surface area of 10.37, 8.50, and 10.08 cm²; sphericity of 0.56%, 0.64%, and 0.60%; aspect ratio of 28.26, 38.76, and 39.41, and a hydration capacity of 0.36, 0.49, 0.70 g/pod for Samnut 10, Samnut 14, and Samnut 18, respectively. The respective values of the kernels for these varieties were determined to be kernel mass of 0.52, 0.47, and 0.57 g; volume of 0.74, 0.57, and 0.70 cm³; geometric mean diameter of 5.05, 4.47, and 5.02 mm; surface area of 0.42, 0.53 and 0.41 cm²; sphericity of 0.35, 0.39, 0.35; aspect ratio of 62.18, 69.90, 60.77 and a hydration capacity of 0.30, 0.17, 0.28 g/kernel.Correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the degree of association between different parameters.The results of this study showed that each of thesevarieties has different physical properties and thus require careful study for successful design and development of optimal processing equipment. © 2014 Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.

Oyelade O.A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Oni K.C.,University Of Ilorin
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2013

In order to boost and encourage commercial farming operation in Nigeria, three models of TAK tractors, namely, TAK DI 750, TAK DI 75 and TAK DI 90 in the range of 37.3 kW (50 hp), 55.95 kW (75 hp) and 67.14 kW (90 hp), respectively, were evaluated at the National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM), Ilorin, Kwara State. The objectives were to determine their suitability for use in Nigerian agriculture and for transforming the country's agricultural sector by changing the present farming system from subsistence farming to commercial farming. Evaluation of the three models was carried out at the experimental farm of the National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM) using randomized block completed design (RBCD) statistical plot layout to determine operational effects on fuel consumption, travel reduction, tractive efficiencies, as well as field capacity coverage. Results show that fuel consumption was higher for ploughing operations varying between 5.90 L/ha and 6.80 L/ha than harrowing operations varying between 0.85 L/ha and 1.20 L/ha for the three tractor models. So also were the results of field efficiencies which varied between 73.56% and 84.74% and 75.36% and 84.55% for ploughing and harrowing operations, respectively. Also, the travel reduction and field operational efficiencies were higher for TAK models DI 750 than the other two models, the results for fuel use and draught force did not follow such trend, being governed more by soil conditions at the time of investigation. The results further shows that tractor size has overriding influence on fuel consumption and tractive performance while soil condition greatly influenced the performance of the three tractor models. Among the three sets of TAK tractor models tested using the same tractor operator to operate these tractors, TAK DI 750 tractor during ploughing operation performed better in terms of economic value by having the lowest fuel consumption rate of 5.90 L/ha, lowest drawbar power of 8.08 kW and highest field efficiency of 84.74%. This was immediately followed by TAK DI 75 tractor which recorded a fuel consumption rate of 6.30 L/ha, a drawbar power of 9.49 kW and a field efficiency of 78.77%. Finally, TAK DI 90 tractor recorded a fuel consumption rate of 6.80 L/ ha, a drawbar power of 9.72 kW and a field efficiency of 73.56%.

Oyelade O.A.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization | Oni K.C.,University Of Ilorin
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013 | Year: 2013

Tillage, the mechanical manipulation of soil, demands a huge amount of energy in order to accomplish various tasks during field operation. Field tests and evaluation were conducted on 37 different tractor makes and models with matching implements at four different sites representing the three regions of Nigeria between 2005 and 2011. Implements used for the trials were tractor mounted 3-bottom disc plough and 18-blade off-set disc harrow. Each tractor was operated on 1.0 hectare (100 m x 100 m) farm land in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Parameters measured included tractor power rating, travel speed, effective and total time of operation, field efficiency, field capacities (effective and theoretical), depth and width of cut, soil moisture content, soil bulk density and soil resistance to cone penetration, respectively in order to determine energy requirement for each tractor-implement combination. A mathematical model for predicting energy requirement for the tillage operations was developed. The resulting model equation was validated using paired sample t-Test. Results obtained showed that the model equation adequately predicted energy requirement for tillage operations.

Sunmonu M.O.,University Of Ilorin | Olaniyan A.M.,Federal University, Oye-Ekiti | Aduba J.J.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2014

Empirical models were developed to predict some selected antioxidants present in stored oranges under a modified atmosphere. Three sets of four different types of passive evaporative cooling structures made of two different materials; clay and aluminium were designed and constructed as part of the study. One set consisted of four separate cooling chambers. Two cooling chambers were made with aluminium container (cylindrical and rectangular shapes) and the other two were made of clay container (cylindrical and rectangular). These four containers were separately inserted inside a bigger clay pot inter-spaced with clay soil of 5 cm (to form tin-in-pot, pot-in-pot, tin-in-wall and wall-in wall) with the outside structure wrapped with jute sack. The other two sets followed the same pattern with interspacing of 7 and 10 cm respectively. The set with 7 cm interspace served as the control in which the interspace soil and the jute sacks were constantly wetted at intervals of two to four hours depending on the rate of evaporation with water at room temperature. The other two sets (5 and 10 cm interspaced soil) were constantly wetted with salt solution (Table salt (Nacl)) at the same interval to keep the soil in moist condition. Freshly harvested matured oranges were used for the experiments and the temperature and relative humidity were monitored daily. The vitamin A, C and E, bacterial and fungal counts of this produce were determined at intervals of three days for a period of 21 days. Mathematical models (using essential regression software package) were developed to predict the vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E contents of the stored oranges at various conditions considered in the study. The existence and sufficiency of the regression models given in the equations were also examined using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the multiple regression models. The models were found to be at 5% level of significant. The models were validated using pair-wise T-test and the results of the pair-wise shows that there is no significance difference between the mean of observed and the predicted for all the models developed. The Radj 2 value obtained were 82.43%, 86.63% and 76.48% for vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E contents respectively for the stored oranges.

Ahaneku I.E.,National Center for Agricultural Mechanization
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2010

This article presents the conservation of soil and water resources and its effective utilization as key to sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This requires policies and methods that emphasize the conservation of these natural resources base. Poverty, intensification and extensification of marginal lands were identified as major threats to the sustainability of soil and water resources. The study recommends home grown: soil and water conservation practices, and water quality management techniques that are vital to ameliorate the problems of soil degradation, erosion and water quality. It is advocated that education and training of the stakeholders remains the best option for the adoption of the suggested sustainable technologies in order to avert food crisis in Nigeria. © 2010 Academic Journals.

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