National Caucus and Center on Black Aged Inc.

Durham, NC, United States

National Caucus and Center on Black Aged Inc.

Durham, NC, United States
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Strynar M.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Dagnino S.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Dagnino S.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education | McMahen R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Recent scientific scrutiny and concerns over exposure, toxicity, and risk have led to international regulatory efforts resulting in the reduction or elimination of certain perfluorinated compounds from various products and waste streams. Some manufacturers have started producing shorter chain per- and polyfluorinated compounds to try to reduce the potential for bioaccumulation in humans and wildlife. Some of these new compounds contain central ether oxygens or other minor modifications of traditional perfluorinated structures. At present, there has been very limited information published on these "replacement chemistries" in the peer-reviewed literature. In this study we used a time-of-flight mass spectrometry detector (LC-ESI-TOFMS) to identify fluorinated compounds in natural waters collected from locations with historical perfluorinated compound contamination. Our workflow for discovery of chemicals included sequential sampling of surface water for identification of potential sources, nontargeted TOFMS analysis, molecular feature extraction (MFE) of samples, and evaluation of features unique to the sample with source inputs. Specifically, compounds were tentatively identified by (1) accurate mass determination of parent and/or related adducts and fragments from in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID), (2) in-depth evaluation of in-source adducts formed during analysis, and (3) confirmation with authentic standards when available. We observed groups of compounds in homologous series that differed by multiples of CF2 (m/z 49.9968) or CF2O (m/z 65.9917). Compounds in each series were chromatographically separated and had comparable fragments and adducts produced during analysis. We detected 12 novel perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic and sulfonic acids in surface water in North Carolina, USA using this approach. A key piece of evidence was the discovery of accurate mass in-source n-mer formation (H+ and Na+) differing by m/z 21.9819, corresponding to the mass difference between the protonated and sodiated dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Delinsky A.D.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Strynar M.J.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Mccann P.J.,Health Risk Assessment Unit | Varns J.L.,National Caucus and Center on Black Aged Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

In response to growing interest in human exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), the state of Minnesota measured and reported PFC concentrations in fish collected from the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. To better determine the geographical distribution of PFC contamination throughout Minnesota, fish were collected from 59 lakes throughout the state and several areas along the Mississippi River. Composite fish samples were analyzed for 10 PFC analytes by solidphase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate) was the most commonly detected PFC, occurring in 73% of fish from the Mississippi River but only 22% of fish from lakes. Fish from Mississippi River Pool 2 near the Minneapolis-St. Paul area had the highest levels of PFOS, whereas locations upstream had PFOS concentrations below 40 ng/g, the concentration at which Minnesota issues "one meal per week" fish consumption advice. Fish from most Minnesota lakes tested (88%) had PFOS concentrations below 3 ng/g. Two lakes, McCarrons and Zumbro, contained fish with PFOS levels above 40 ng/g. The results reported here will help researchers to better understand the extent of PFC contamination in Minnesota fish and evaluate potential sources of contamination and will provide a basis for comprehensive fish consumption advice. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Nelson C.M.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Gilmore T.M.,National Caucus and Center on Black Aged Inc. | Harrington J.M.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education | Scheckel K.G.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2013

The U.S. EPA's in vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) method 9200.1-86 defines a validated analytical procedure for the determination of lead bioaccessibility in contaminated soils. The method requires the use of a custom-fabricated extraction device that uses a heated water bath for sample incubation. In an effort to improve ease of use, increase sample throughput, and reduce equipment acquisition and maintenance costs, an alternative low-cost, commercially available extraction device capable of sample incubation via heated air and end-over-end rotation was evaluated. An intra-laboratory study was conducted to compare lead bioaccessibility values derived using the two extraction devices. IVBA values were not statistically different (α = 0.05) between the two extraction devices for any of the soils (n = 6) evaluated in this study, with an average difference in mean lead IVBA of 0.8% (s.d. = 0.5%). The commercially available extraction device was able to generate accurate lead IVBA data as compared to the U.S. EPA's expected value for a National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material soil. The relative percent differences between high and low IVBA values for each soil, a measure of instrument precision, were also not statistically different (α = 0.05) between the two extraction devices. The statistical agreement of lead IVBA values observed using the two extraction devices supports the use of a low-cost, commercially available extraction device as a reliable alternative to a custom-fabricated device as required by EPA method 9200.1-86. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Lindstrom A.B.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Strynar M.J.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Delinsky A.D.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Nakayama S.F.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been produced and used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products for many decades. Their resistance to degradation has led to their widespread distribution in the environment, but little is known about how humans become exposed. Recent studies have demonstrated that the application of PFC contaminated biosolids can have important effects on local environments, ultimately leading to demonstrable human exposures. This manuscript describes a situation in Decatur, Alabama where PFC contaminated biosolids from a local municipal wastewater treatment facility that had received waste from local fluorochemical facilities were used as a soil amendment in local agricultural fields for as many as twelve years. Ten target PFCs were measured in surface and groundwater samples. Results show that surface and well water in the vicinity of these fields had elevated PFC concentrations, with 22% of the samples exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Provisional Health Advisory level for PFOA in drinking water of 400 ng/L. Water/soil concentration ratios as high as 0.34 for perfluorohexanoic acid, 0.17 for perfluoroheptanoic acid, and 0.04 for PFOA verify decreasing mobility from soils with increasing chain length while indicating that relatively high transport from soils to surface and well water is possible. © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2011 by the American Chemical Society.

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