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Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan

Carter A.,OnCore UK | Carter A.,National Cancer Research Institute | Betsou F.,Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg
Biopreservation and Biobanking | Year: 2011

Biobanking is recognized as a critical area requiring development if progress is to be made in identifying clinically useful markers of disease and disease progression, discovering new drug targets, and understanding the mechanisms of disease in cancer. Researchers continue to report that they are unable to obtain sufficient high-quality, well-annotated samples of diseased and control tissue, blood, and other biological materials. At the same time, funders of research, and especially funders of biobanks, are looking to obtain the best value from their investments in sample and data collection. There is a need to increase the availability to researchers of large numbers of high-quality, well-annotated samples of diseased and control tissue, blood, and other biological materials and, in this way, accelerate cancer research. To do this, samples need to be collected, processed, and stored in standardized ways that give assurance to researchers that they are fit for purpose. Quality assurance is an essential part of good science and this article describes how quality assurance is applied in cancer biobanking and discusses the need for internationally acceptable standards. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Tanaka T.,The Tohkai Cytopathology Institute Cancer Research and Prevention TCI CaRP | Hosokawa M.,Hokkaido University | Yasui Y.,Rakuno Gakuen University | Ishigamori R.,National Cancer Research Institute | Miyashita K.,Hokkaido University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

Conjugated fatty acids (CFA) have received increased interest because of their beneficial effects on human health, including preventing cancer development. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are such CFA, and have been reviewed extensively for their multiple biological activities. In contrast to other types of CFAs including CLA that are found at low concentrations (less than 1%) in natural products, conjugated linolenic acids (CLN) are the only CFAs that occur in higher quantities in natural products. Some plant seeds contain a considerably high concentration of CLN (30 to 70 wt% lipid). Our research group has screened CLN from different plant seed oils to determine their cancer chemopreventive ability. This review describes the physiological functions of CLN isomers that occur in certain plant seeds. CLN are able to induce apoptosis through decrease of Bcl-2 protein in certain human cancer cell lines, increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and up-regulate gene expression of p53. Findings in our preclinical animal studies have indicated that feeding with CLN resulted in inhibition of colorectal tumorigenesis through modulation of apoptosis and expression of PPARγ and p53. In this review, we summarize chemopreventive efficacy of CLN against cancer development, especially colorectal cancer. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Rinkevich Y.,Stanford University | Mori T.,Stanford University | Mori T.,National Cancer Research Institute | Sahoo D.,Stanford University | And 3 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (FSMCs) are principal cell types of connective and adventitial tissues that participate in the development, physiology and pathology of internal organs, with incompletely defined cellular origins. Here, we identify and prospectively isolate from the mesothelium a mouse cell lineage that is committed to FSMCs. The mesothelium is an epithelial monolayer covering the vertebrate thoracic and abdominal cavities and internal organs. Time-lapse imaging and transplantation experiments reveal robust generation of FSMCs from the mesothelium. By targeting mesothelin (MSLN), a surface marker expressed on mesothelial cells, we identify and isolate precursors capable of clonally generating FSMCs. Using a genetic lineage tracing approach, we show that embryonic and adult mesothelium represents a common lineage to trunk FSMCs, and trunk vasculature, with minimal contributions from neural crest, or circulating cells. The isolation of FSMC precursors enables the examination of multiple aspects of smooth muscle and fibroblast biology as well as the prospective isolation of these precursors for potential regenerative medicine purposes. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Seki A.,Kanazawa University | Sakai Y.,Kanazawa University | Komura T.,Kanazawa University | Nasti A.,Kanazawa University | And 10 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2013

Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease that impairs hepatic function and causes advanced fibrosis. Mesenchymal stem cells have gained recent popularity as a regenerative therapy since they possess immunomodulatory functions. We found that injected adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) reside in the liver. Injection of ADSCs also restores albumin expression in hepatic parenchymal cells and ameliorates fibrosis in a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis model of cirrhosis in mice. Gene expression analysis of the liver identifies up- and down-regulation of genes, indicating regeneration/repair and anti-inflammatory processes following ADSC injection. ADSC treatment also decreases the number of intrahepatic infiltrating CD11b+ and Gr-1+ cells and reduces the ratio of CD8+/CD4+ cells in hepatic inflammatory cells. This is consistent with down-regulation of genes in hepatic inflammatory cells related to antigen presentation and helper T-cell activation. Conclusion: These results suggest that ADSC therapy is beneficial in cirrhosis, as it can repair and restore the function of the impaired liver. © 2013 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Quinlan P.R.,University of Dundee | Mistry G.,University of Leicester | Bullbeck H.,Brainstrust | Carter A.,National Cancer Research Institute
Biopreservation and Biobanking | Year: 2014

Human tissue biobanks are at the epicenter of clinical research, responsible for providing both clinical samples and annotated data. There is a need for large numbers of samples to provide statistical power to research studies, especially since treatment and diagnosis are becoming ever more personalized. A single biobank cannot provide sufficient numbers of samples to capture the full spectrum of any disease. Currently there is no infrastructure in the United Kingdom (UK) to integrate biobanks. Therefore the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Confederation of Cancer Biobanks (CCB) Working Group 3 looked to establish a data standard to enable biobanks to communicate about the samples they hold and so facilitate the formation of an integrated national network of biobanks. The Working Group examined the existing data standards available to biobanks, such as the MIABIS standard, and compared these to the aims of the working group. The CCB-developed data standard has brought many improvements: (1) Where existing data standards have been developed, these have been incorporated, ensuring compatibility with other initiatives; (2) the standard was written with the expectation that it will be extended for specific disease areas, such as the Breast Cancer Campaign Tissue Bank (BCCTB) and the Strategic Tissue Repository Alliances Through Unified Methods (STRATUM) project; and (3) biobanks will be able to communicate about specific samples, as well as aggregated statistics. The development of this data standard will allow all biobanks to integrate and share information about the samples they hold, facilitating the possibility of a national portal for researchers to find suitable samples for research. In addition, the data standard will allow other clinical services, such as disease registries, to communicate with biobanks in a standardized format allowing for greater cross-discipline data sharing. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

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