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Hanly P.A.,National College of Ireland | Sharp L.,National Cancer Registry Ireland
BMC Cancer

Background: Most measures of the cancer burden take a public health perspective. Cancer also has a significant economic impact on society. To assess this economic burden, we estimated years of potential productive life lost (YPPLL) and costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality in Ireland.Methods: All cancers combined and the 10 sites accounting for most deaths in men and in women were considered. To compute YPPLL, deaths in 5-year age-bands between 15 and 64 years were multiplied by average working-life expectancy. Valuation of costs, using the human capital approach, involved multiplying YPPLL by age-and-gender specific gross wages, and adjusting for unemployment and workforce participation. Sensitivity analyses were conducted around retirement age and wage growth, labour force participation, employment and discount rates, and to explore the impact of including household production and caring costs. Costs were expressed in €2009.Results: Total YPPLL was lower in men than women (men = 10,873; women = 12,119). Premature cancer-related mortality costs were higher in men (men: total cost = €332 million, cost/death = €290,172, cost/YPPLL = €30,558; women: total cost = €177 million, cost/death = €159,959, cost/YPPLL = €14,628). Lung cancer had the highest premature mortality cost (€84.0 million; 16.5% of total costs), followed by cancers of the colorectum (€49.6 million; 9.7%), breast (€49.4 million; 9.7%) and brain & CNS (€42.4 million: 8.3%). The total economic cost of premature cancer-related mortality in Ireland amounted to €509.5 million or 0.3% of gross domestic product. An increase of one year in the retirement age increased the total all-cancer premature mortality cost by 9.9% for men and 5.9% for women. The inclusion of household production and caring costs increased the total cost to €945.7 million.Conclusion: Lost productivity costs due to cancer-related premature mortality are significant. The higher premature mortality cost in males than females reflects higher wages and rates of workforce participation. Productivity costs provide an alternative perspective on the cancer burden on society and may inform cancer control policy decisions. © 2014 Hanly and Sharp; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Spillane S.,St Jamess Hospital | Bennett K.,St Jamess Hospital | Sharp L.,National Cancer Registry Ireland | Barron T.I.,St Jamess Hospital
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

Background: Preclinical evidence suggests a beneficial effect of metformin in colorectal cancer. This study aimed to investigate associations between metformin exposure and colorectal cancer-specific survival using population-level data. Methods: Adult patients with stage I-III colorectal cancer diagnosed from 2001 to 2006 were identified from the National Cancer Registry Ireland. Use of metformin and other antidiabetic medications was determined from a linked national prescription claims database. Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between prediagnostic metformin exposure (versus nonmetformin antidiabetic drugs) and colorectal cancer-specific mortality. Models were stratified by antidiabetic drug coprescription and intensity of metformin exposure. Results: The cohort included 207 diabeticswho received metformin, 108 diabetics not exposed to metformin, and 3,501 nondiabetic patients. In multivariate analyses, a nonsignificant reduction in colorectal cancer-specific mortality was observed for metformin-exposed patients relative to other treated diabetics (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.37-1.01). In stratified analyses, no significant association was observed for patients receiving low-intensity metformin or metformin in combination with other antidiabetic drugs. High-intensity exclusive metformin use was associated with a significant reduction in colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20-0.95). Conclusions: Significant associations between metformin exposure and colorectal cancer-specific mortality were observed only for high-intensity exclusive metformin use in the diabetic cohort. Impact: This study provides moderate evidence of an association between metformin exposure and improved colorectal cancer survival in a diabetic population. Additional studies in larger cohorts, with detailed information on diabetes severity, are required to confirm these results. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(8); 1364-73. ©2013 AACR. Source

Barron T.I.,Trinity College Dublin | Cahir C.,Trinity College Dublin | Sharp L.,National Cancer Registry Ireland | Bennett K.,Trinity College Dublin
British Journal of Cancer

Background:Non-persistence and non-compliance are common in women prescribed hormonal therapy for breast cancer, but little is known about their influence on recurrence.Methods:A nested case-control study of associations between hormonal therapy non-persistence and non-compliance and the risk of early recurrence in women with stage I-III breast cancer was undertaken. Cases, defined as women with a breast cancer recurrence within 4 years of hormonal therapy initiation, were matched to controls (1: 5) by tumour stage and age. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine associations between early recurrence and hormonal therapy non-persistence and non-compliance.Results:Ninety-four women with breast cancer recurrence were matched to 458 controls. Women who were non-persistent (≥180 days without hormonal therapy) had a significantly increased adjusted recurrence odds ratio (OR) of 2.88 (95%CI 1.11, 7.46) compared with persistent women. There was no significant association between low compliance (OR 1.30; 95% CI 0.74, 2.30) and breast cancer recurrence.Conclusion:Hormonal therapy non-persistence is associated with a significantly higher risk of early recurrence in women with stage I-III oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. This finding is consistent with results from randomized studies of hormonal therapy treatment duration and suggests that interventions to target modifiable risk factors for non-persistence are required. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. Source

Flahavan E.M.,Trinity College Dublin | Bennett K.,Trinity College Dublin | Sharp L.,National Cancer Registry Ireland | Barron T.I.,Trinity College Dublin
Annals of Oncology

Background: Aspirin use has been associated with reduced mortality from cancer including prostate cancer in some studies. A number of anti-cancer mechanisms of aspirin have been proposed, including the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzymes, through which aspirin mediates both anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory activities. This cohort study examines associations between pre-diagnostic aspirin use (overall and by dose and dosing intensity) and mortality in men with localised prostate cancer. Patients and methods: Men with stage I-III prostate cancer were identified from Irish National Cancer Registry records, which have been linked to national prescribing data from the Irish General Medical Services scheme. Aspirin use in the year preceding prostate cancer diagnosis was identified from this linked prescription-claims data. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between aspirin use and all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Associations between prescribed dose and dosing intensity were examined. The presence of effect modification by the type of treatment received and tumour characteristics was also assessed. Results: Two thousand nine hundred and thirty-six men with a diagnosis of stage I-III prostate cancer (2001-2006) were identified (aspirin users, n = 1131). The median duration of patient follow-up was 5.5 years. In adjusted analyses, aspirin use was associated with a small, but non-significant, reduced risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.67-1.15). In dose-response analyses, stronger associations with prostate cancer-specific mortality were observed in men with higher aspirin dosing intensity (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.51-1.05) and in men receiving >75 mg of aspirin (HR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.37-0.99). Analyses of effect modification by treatment type or tumour characteristics were non-significant. Conclusions: Consistent with prior studies, aspirin use was associated with a non-significant reduced risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with localised prostate cancer. Men receiving higher doses of aspirin had a statistically significant reduced risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality. These findings regarding an aspirin dose require further investigation. © The Author 2013.Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

Hanly P.,National College of Ireland | Soerjomataram I.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Sharp L.,National Cancer Registry Ireland
International Journal of Cancer

Every cancer-related death in someone of working age represents an economic loss to society. To inform priorities for cancer control, we estimated costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality across Europe, for all cancers and by site, gender, region and country. Cancer deaths in 2008 were obtained from GLOBOCAN for 30 European countries across four regions. Costs were valued using the human capital approach. Years of productive life lost (YPLL) were computed by multiplying deaths between 15 and 64 years by working-life expectancy, then by country-, age- and gender-specific annual wages, corrected for workforce participation and unemployment. Lost productivity costs due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe in 2008 were e75 billion. Male costs (e49 billion) were almost twice female costs (e26 billion). The most costly sites were lung (e17 billion; 23% of total costs), breast (e7 billion; 9%) and colorectum (e6 billion; 8%). Stomach cancer (in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe) and pancreatic cancer (in Northern and Western Europe) were also among the most costly sites. The average lost productivity cost per cancer death was e219,241. Melanoma had the highest cost per death (e312,798), followed by Hodgkin disease (e306,628) and brain and CNS cancer (e288,850). Premature mortality costs were 0.58% of 2008 European gross domestic product, highest in Central-Eastern Europe (0.81%) and lowest in Northern Europe (0.51%). Premature cancer-related mortality costs in Europe are significant. These results provide a novel perspective on the societal cancer burden and may be used to inform priority setting for cancer control. © 2014 UICC. Source

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