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Cheng M.L.,University of California at San Francisco | Zhang L.,University of California at San Francisco | Borok M.,Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry | Chokunonga E.,Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2015

The incidence of oesophageal cancer (OC) varies geographically, with more than 80% of cases and deaths worldwide occurring in developing countries. The aim of this study is to characterize the disease burden of OC in four urban populations in Eastern Africa, which may represent a previously undescribed high-incidence area. Data on all cases of OC diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from four population-based cancer registries in: Blantyre, Malawi; Harare, Zimbabwe; Kampala, Uganda; and Nairobi, Kenya. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated for each population, and descriptive statistics for incident cases were determined. In Blantyre, 351 male (59%) and 239 (41%) female cases were reported, with ASRs of 47.2 and 30.3. In Harare, 213 male (61%) and 134 (39%) female cases were reported, with ASRs of 33.4 and 25.3, respectively. In Kampala, 196 male (59%) and 137 female (41%) cases were reported, with ASRs of 36.7 and 24.8. In Nairobi, 323 male (57%) and 239 female (43%) cases were reported, with ASRs of 22.6 and 21.6. Median age at diagnosis was significantly different among the four populations, ranging from 50 years in Blantyre to 65 years in Harare (. p<. 0.0001). Except in Nairobi, incidence among males was significantly higher than among females (. p<. 0.01). Squamous cell OC was the predominant histologic subtype at all sites. ASRs at all four sites were remarkably higher than the mean worldwide ASR. Investigation to evaluate potential etiologic effects of dietary, lifestyle, environmental, and other factors impacting the incidence in this region is needed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Oxford, Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Makerere University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer epidemiology | Year: 2015

The incidence of oesophageal cancer (OC) varies geographically, with more than 80% of cases and deaths worldwide occurring in developing countries. The aim of this study is to characterize the disease burden of OC in four urban populations in Eastern Africa, which may represent a previously undescribed high-incidence area. Data on all cases of OC diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from four population-based cancer registries in: Blantyre, Malawi; Harare, Zimbabwe; Kampala, Uganda; and Nairobi, Kenya. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated for each population, and descriptive statistics for incident cases were determined. In Blantyre, 351 male (59%) and 239 (41%) female cases were reported, with ASRs of 47.2 and 30.3. In Harare, 213 male (61%) and 134 (39%) female cases were reported, with ASRs of 33.4 and 25.3, respectively. In Kampala, 196 male (59%) and 137 female (41%) cases were reported, with ASRs of 36.7 and 24.8. In Nairobi, 323 male (57%) and 239 female (43%) cases were reported, with ASRs of 22.6 and 21.6. Median age at diagnosis was significantly different among the four populations, ranging from 50 years in Blantyre to 65 years in Harare (p<0.0001). Except in Nairobi, incidence among males was significantly higher than among females (p<0.01). Squamous cell OC was the predominant histologic subtype at all sites. ASRs at all four sites were remarkably higher than the mean worldwide ASR. Investigation to evaluate potential etiologic effects of dietary, lifestyle, environmental, and other factors impacting the incidence in this region is needed.


Katsidzira L.,University of Zimbabwe | Katsidzira L.,University of Cape Town | Chokunonga E.,Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry | Gangaidzo I.T.,University of Zimbabwe | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2016

Background Data on colorectal cancer (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa is mainly based on hospital series which suggest low incidence and frequent early onset cancers. This study characterises colorectal cancer in a population-based cancer registry in Zimbabwe. Methods Cases of CRC recorded by the Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry between 2003 and 2012 were analysed. Demographic and pathological characteristics were compared according to ethnicity and age. Trends in age standardised incidence rates (ASR) were determined. Results There were 886 and 216 cases of CRC among black Africans and Caucasians respectively, and 26% of the black Africans were younger than 40 years. Signet ring cell carcinomas were more common among black Africans compared to Caucasians (4% vs 1%, p = 0.027). ASR increased by 1.9%/year and 3.9%/year among black African males and females respectively. Conclusion CRC incidence is rising among black Africans and has unique demographic and pathological characteristics. © 2016


Chokunonga E.,Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry | Windridge P.,Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine | Sasieni P.,Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine | Borok M.,Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry | Parkin D.M.,Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Data from 20 years of cancer registration in Harare (Zimbabwe) are used to investigate the risk of cancer in the white population of the city (of European origin), relative to that in blacks (of African origin). In the absence of information on the respective populations-at-risk, we calculated odds of each major cancer among all cancers, and took the odds ratios of whites to blacks. Some major differences reflect obvious phenotypic differences (the very high incidence of skin cancer - melanoma and nonmelanoma - in the white population), whereas others (high rates of liver cancer, Kaposi sarcoma and conjunctival cancers in blacks) are the result of differences in exposure to infectious agents. Of particular interest are cancers related to lifestyle factors, and how the differences in risk are changing over time, as a result of evolving lifestyles. Thus, the high risk of cancers of the esophagus and cervix uteri in blacks (relative to whites) and colorectal cancers in whites show little change over time. Conversely, the odds of breast cancer, on average four times higher in whites than blacks, has shown a significant decrease in the differential over time. Cancer of the prostate, with the odds initially (1991-1997) 15% higher in whites had become 33% higher in blacks by 2004-2010. What's new? The risk of cancer frequently varies between ethnic groups, raising the question of how much those variations are due to inherent genetic differences versus environmental exposures. In this comparison of cancer risk among whites and blacks in Harare, Zimbabwe, over the period 1991-2010, both obvious and relatively obscure risk variations were identified. Prominent among the latter were changes in risk differential for certain cancers, including breast cancer, the incidence of which is rising in the black population. Changes in cancer risk differential likely are due in part to shifting lifestyle trends among white and black populations in Harare. © 2015 UICC.


PubMed | Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine and Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry
Type: Historical Article | Journal: International journal of cancer | Year: 2016

Data from 20 years of cancer registration in Harare (Zimbabwe) are used to investigate the risk of cancer in the white population of the city (of European origin), relative to that in blacks (of African origin). In the absence of information on the respective populations-at-risk, we calculated odds of each major cancer among all cancers, and took the odds ratios of whites to blacks. Some major differences reflect obvious phenotypic differences (the very high incidence of skin cancer-melanoma and nonmelanoma--in the white population), whereas others (high rates of liver cancer, Kaposi sarcoma and conjunctival cancers in blacks) are the result of differences in exposure to infectious agents. Of particular interest are cancers related to lifestyle factors, and how the differences in risk are changing over time, as a result of evolving lifestyles. Thus, the high risk of cancers of the esophagus and cervix uteri in blacks (relative to whites) and colorectal cancers in whites show little change over time. Conversely, the odds of breast cancer, on average four times higher in whites than blacks, has shown a significant decrease in the differential over time. Cancer of the prostate, with the odds initially (1991-1997) 15% higher in whites had become 33% higher in blacks by 2004-2010.

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