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Pusch S.,Institute of PathologyUniversity Hospital HeidelbergHeidelberg Germany | Wang X.W.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda
Hepatology | Year: 2016

Several chronic inflammatory liver diseases, e.g., chronic hepatitis B or C viral infection and steatohepatitis, have been shown to predispose to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In patients with chronic liver disease, interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum levels are elevated and increase even more when HCC develops. However, the impact and regulatory mechanisms of IL-6 signaling during hepatocarcinogenesis are still poorly defined. Here, we show that gene expression profiles of patients with chromosome 8p loss correlate with increased IL-6 signaling. In addition, the chromosome 8p tumor suppressor genes Src homology 2 domain containing 4A (SH2D4A) and Sorbin and Src homology 3 domain containing 3 (SORBS3) together exerted greater inhibition of cell growth and clonogenicity compared to a single gene. Overexpression of SH2D4A and SORBS3 in HCC cells led to decreased IL-6 target gene expression and reduced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. In situ and in vitro coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed that SH2D4A directly interacts with STAT3, thereby retaining STAT3 in the cytoplasm and inhibiting STAT3 transcriptional activity. On the other hand, SORBS3 coactivated estrogen receptor α signaling, leading indirectly to repression of STAT3 signaling. In human HCC tissues, SH2D4A was positively associated with infiltrating regulatory and cytotoxic T-cell populations, suggesting distinct immunophenotypes in HCC subgroups with chromosome 8p loss. Thus, the genetically linked tumor suppressors SH2D4A and SORBS3 functionally cooperate to inhibit STAT3 signaling in HCC. Conclusion: The chromosome 8p tumor suppressor genes SORBS3 and SH2D4A are physically and functionally linked and provide a molecular mechanism of inhibiting STAT3-mediated IL-6 signaling in HCC cells. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Jansen L.A.,Center for Ethics in Health CareOregon Health and Science UniversityPortland | Mahadevan D.,Arizona Cancer Center | Appelbaum P.S.,New York University | Klein W.M.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | And 2 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. However, optimism is not a unitary construct; it also can be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. The authors assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. The authors also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. METHODS: Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. RESULTS: Dispositional optimism was found to be significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [r], 0.333; P<.0001), but was not associated with the therapeutic misconception (Spearman r, -0.075; P = .329). Dispositional optimism was found to be weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r, 0.215; P = .005). On multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (P = .02) and unrealistic optimism (P<.0001) were found to be independently associated with high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit. Unrealistic optimism (P = .0001), but not dispositional optimism, was found to be independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. CONCLUSIONS: High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information regarding the trials. The data from the current study indicate that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations concerning specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early-phase oncology research. © 2016 American Cancer Society.


Goey A.K.L.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | Sissung T.M.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | Peer C.J.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | Trepel J.B.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat is eliminated through glucuronidation by UGT1A1. Polymorphisms that reduce UGT1A1 function could result in increased belinostat exposure and toxicities. We wanted to determine which single-nucleotide polymorphisms alter belinostat exposure and toxicity. In a phase 1 trial (belinostat over 48 hours in combination with cisplatin and etoposide), belinostat (400, 500, 600, or 800mg/m2/24h, 48-hour continuous infusion) was administered to patients with cancer in combination with cisplatin and etoposide (n=25). Patients were genotyped for UGT1A1 variants associated with reduced function: UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28, and UGT1A1*60. End points were associations between UGT1A1 genotype and belinostat pharmacokinetics (PK), toxicities, and global protein lysine acetylation (AcK). Belinostat AUC was increased (P=.003), and t1/2 increased (P=.0009) in UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*60 carriers who received more than 400mg/m2/24h. The incidence of grades 3-4 thrombocytopenia (P=.0081) was associated with UGT1A1 polymorphisms. The US Food and Drug Administration-approved package insert recommends dose adjustment of belinostat for UGT1A1*28. However, our data suggest dose adjustment is also necessary for UGT1A1*60. UGT1A1 polymorphisms were associated with increased systemic belinostat exposure, increased AcK, and increased incidence of toxicities, particularly at doses > 400mg/m2/24h. Published 2015.


Sawyer I.A.,Franklin University | Sturgill D.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | Sung M.-H.,National Institute on AgingNational Institutes of HealthBaltimore | Hager G.L.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | Dundr M.,Franklin University
BioEssays | Year: 2016

Nuclear bodies contribute to non-random organization of the human genome and nuclear function. Using a major prototypical nuclear body, the Cajal body, as an example, we suggest that these structures assemble at specific gene loci located across the genome as a result of high transcriptional activity. Subsequently, target genes are physically clustered in close proximity in Cajal body-containing cells. However, Cajal bodies are observed in only a limited number of human cell types, including neuronal and cancer cells. Ultimately, Cajal body depletion perturbs splicing kinetics by reducing target small nuclear RNA (snRNA) transcription and limiting the levels of spliceosomal snRNPs, including their modification and turnover following each round of RNA splicing. As such, Cajal bodies are capable of shaping the chromatin interaction landscape and the transcriptome by influencing spliceosome kinetics. Future studies should concentrate on characterizing the direct influence of Cajal bodies upon snRNA gene transcriptional dynamics. Also see the video abstract here. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.


Makarova-Rusher O.V.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | Altekruse S.F.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | Mcneel T.S.,Information Management Services IncCalverton | Ulahannan S.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | And 4 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence has been increasing in the United States for several decades; and, as the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection declines and the prevalence of metabolic disorders rises, the proportion of HCC attributable to various risk factors may be changing. METHODS: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linkage were used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) for each risk factor over time. Patients with HCC (n = 10,708) who were diagnosed during the years 2000 through 2011 were compared with a 5% random sample of cancer-free controls (n = 332,107) residing in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results areas. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and PAFs were calculated for HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), metabolic disorders, alcohol-related disorders, smoking, and genetic disorders. RESULTS: Overall, the PAF was greatest for metabolic disorders (32%), followed by HCV (20.5%), alcohol (13.4%), smoking (9%), HBV (4.3%), and genetic disorders (1.5%). The PAF for all factors combined was 59.5%. PAFs differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Metabolic disorders had the largest PAF among Hispanics (PAF, 39.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31.9%-46.7%) and whites (PAF, 34.8%; 95% CI, 33.1%-36.5%), whereas HCV had the largest PAF among blacks (PAF, 36.1%; 95% CI, 31.8%-40.4%) and Asians (PAF, 29.7%; 95% CI, 25.9%-33.4%). Between 2000 and 2011, the PAF of metabolic disorders increased from 25.8% (95% CI, 22.8%-28.9%) to 36% (95% CI, 33.6%-38.5%). In contrast, the PAFs of alcohol-related disorders and HCV remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Among US Medicare recipients, metabolic disorders contribute more to the burden of HCC than any other risk factor, and the fraction of HCC caused by metabolic disorders has increased in the last decade. © 2016 American Cancer Society.


Park J.W.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | Zhao L.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | Willingham M.C.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda | Cheng S.-y.,National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda
Molecular Carcinogenesis | Year: 2016

We have recently identified that phosphorylation at tyrosine (Y)406 is critical for the tumor suppressor functions of the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ) in a breast cancer line. However, still unclear is whether the critical tumor suppressor role of phosphorylated Y406 of TRβ is limited to only breast cancer cells or could be extended to other cell types. In the present studies, we addressed this question by stably expressing TRβ, a mutated TRβ oncogene (PV), or a TRβ mutated at Y406 (TRβY406F) in rat PCCL3 thyroid follicular cells and evaluated their tumor characteristics in athymic mice with elevated thyroid stimulating hormone. PCCL3 cells stably expressing PV (PCCL3-PV), TRβY406F (PCCL3-TRβY406F), or vector only (PCCL3-Neo) developed tumors with sizes in the rank order of TRβY406F>PV=Neo, whereas PCCL3 cells expressing TRβ (PCCL3-TRβ) barely developed tumors. As evidenced by markedly elevated Ki67, cyclin D1, and p-Rb protein abundance, proliferative activity was high in PV and TRβY406F tumors, but low in TRβ tumors. These results indicate that TRβ acted as a tumor suppressor in PCCL3 cells, whereas TRβY406F and PV had lost tumor suppressor activity. Interestingly, TRβY406F tumors had very low necrotic areas with decreased TNFα-NFκB signaling to lower apoptotic activity. In contrast, PV tumors had prominent large necrotic areas, with no apparent changes in TNFα-NFκB signaling, indicating distinct oncogenic activities of mutant PV and TRβY406F. Thus, the present studies uncovered a novel mechanism by which TRβ could function as a tumor suppressor through modulation of the TNFα-NFκB signaling. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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