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Diaz-Gonzalez S.D.M.,University of Santa Maria in Ecuador | Deas J.,University of Santa Maria in Ecuador | Benitez-Boijseauneau O.,University of Santa Maria in Ecuador | Gomez-Ceron C.,University of Santa Maria in Ecuador | And 5 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

MicroRNAs and siRNAs belong to a family of small noncoding RNAs which bind through partial sequence complementarity to 3′-UTR regions of mRNA from target genes, resulting in the regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs have become an attractive target for genetic and pharmacological modulation due to the critical function of their target proteins in several signaling pathways, and their expression profiles have been found to be altered in various cancers. A promising technology platform for selective silencing of cell and/or viral gene expression using siRNAs is currently in development. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in the developing world and sexually transmitted infection with HPV is the cause of this malignancy. Therefore, a cascade of abnormal events is induced during cervical carcinogenesis, including the induction of genomic instability, reprogramming of cellular metabolic pathways, deregulation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms, disruption of cell cycle control mechanisms, and alteration of gene expression. Thus, in the present review article, we highlight new research on microRNA expression profiles which may be utilized as biomarkers for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we discuss selective silencing of HPV E6 and E7 with siRNAs which represents a potential gene therapy strategy against cervical cancer. © 2015 Sacnite del Mar Díaz-González et al. Source

Stockman D.L.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Miettinen M.,Armed Forces Institute of Pathology | Suster S.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Spagnolo D.,University of Western Australia | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2012

The clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, ultrastructural, and molecular features of a distinctive gastrointestinal tumor are described. Sixteen patients, 8 women and 8 men aged 17 to 77 years (mean age, 42 y; 63% less than 40 y) presented with abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, and an abdominal mass. Mean tumor size was 5.2 cm (range, 2.4 to 15.0 cm). The tumors arose in the small bowel (10), stomach (4), and colon (2) and were histologically characterized by a sheet-like or nested population of epithelioid or oval-to-spindle cells with small nucleoli and scattered mitoses. Five cases showed focal clearing of the cytoplasm. Scattered osteoclast-type multinucleated giant cells were present in 8 cases. The tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, SOX10, and vimentin in 100% of cases, for CD56 in 70%, for synaptophysin in 56%, for NB84 in 50%, for NSE in 45%, and for neurofilament protein in 14% of cases. All cases tested were negative for specific melanocytic, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, epithelial, and myoid markers. Ultrastructural examination of 5 cases showed features of primitive neuroectodermal cells with clear secretory vesicles, dense-core granules, occasional gap junctions, and no evidence of melanogenesis. EWSR1 gene rearrangement was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 14 cases. Twelve cases (86%) showed split EWSR1 signal consistent with a chromosomal translocation involving EWSR1. One case showed extra intact signals, indicating that the nuclei possessed either extra copies of the EWSR1 gene or chromosome 22 polysomy. Only 1 case showed no involvement of the EWSR1 gene. Six cases demonstrated rearrangement of the partner fusion gene ATF1 (46%), and 3 showed rearrangement of CREB1 (23%); 2 cases lacked rearrangement of either partner gene. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients and ranged from 1.5 to 106 months. Six patients died of their tumors (mean survival, 32 mo; 83% less than 24 mo). At last follow-up, 4 patients were alive with regional, lymph node, and liver metastases, and 2 patients were alive with no evidence of disease. The tumor described here is an aggressive form of neuroectodermal tumor that should be separated from other primitive epithelioid and spindle cell tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The distinctive ultrastructural features and absence of melanocytic differentiation serve to separate them from soft tissue clear cell sarcomas involving the gastrointestinal tract. The designation "malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor" is proposed for this tumor type. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Portenoy R.K.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Ganae-Motan E.D.,Oncology Unit | Allende S.,National Cancer Institute of Mexico | Yanagihara R.,Medical Oncology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pain | Year: 2012

Patients with advanced cancer who have pain that responds poorly to opioid therapy pose a clinical challenge. Nabiximols (Nabiximols is the US Adopted Name [USAN] for Sativex [GW Pharma Ltd, Wiltshire, UK], which does not yet have an INN), a novel cannabinoid formulation, is undergoing investigation as add-on therapy for this population. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, graded-dose study, patients with advanced cancer and opioid-refractory pain received placebo or nabiximols at a low dose (1-4 sprays/day), medium dose (6-10 sprays/day), or high dose (11-16 sprays/day). Average pain, worst pain and sleep disruption were measured daily during 5 weeks of treatment; other questionnaires measured quality of life and mood. A total of 360 patients were randomized; 263 completed. There were no baseline differences across groups. The 30% responder rate primary analysis was not significant for nabiximols versus placebo (overall P =.59). A secondary continuous responder analysis of average daily pain from baseline to end of study demonstrated that the proportion of patients reporting analgesia was greater for nabiximols than placebo overall (P =.035), and specifically in the low-dose (P =.008) and medium-dose (P =.039) groups. In the low-dose group, results were similar for mean average pain (P =.006), mean worst pain (P =.011), and mean sleep disruption (P =.003). Other questionnaires showed no significant group differences. Adverse events were dose-related and only the high-dose group compared unfavorably with placebo. This study supports the efficacy and safety of nabiximols at the 2 lower-dose levels and provides important dose information for future trials. Perspective: Nabiximols, a novel cannabinoid formulation, may be a useful add-on analgesic for patients with opioid-refractory cancer pain. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, graded-dose study demonstrated efficacy and safety at low and medium doses. © 2012 by the American Pain Society. Source

Peralta-Zaragoza O.,National Health Research Institute | Bermudez-Morales V.H.,National Health Research Institute | Perez-Plasencia C.,National Cancer Institute of Mexico | Perez-Plasencia C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 3 more authors.
OncoTargets and Therapy | Year: 2012

Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women world- wide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%-95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development © 2012 Peralta-Zaragoza et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

De La Cruz-Hernandez E.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | Medina-Franco J.L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Medina-Franco J.L.,Mayo Medical School | Trujillo J.,National Cancer Institute of Mexico | And 8 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2015

The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that ribavirin, a known inhibitor of eIF4E and inosine 5'-phosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), also inhibits histone methyltransferase zeste homolog 2 (EZH2). A computational searching revealed that ribavirin has a high structural similarity to 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep). The growth inhibitory effects of ribavirin as well as its effects upon epigenetic enzymes were evaluated in various cancer cell lines. siRNA assays were used to downregulate eIF4E, EZH2 and IMPDH to determine the contribution of these targets to the growth inhibitory effects of ribavirin. Ribavirin decreased EZH2 expression, inhibited histone methyltransferase activity and decreased H3K27 trimethylation. Ribavirin induced variable growth inhibition in a number of cell lines and downregulation of the targets, EZH2, eIF4E and IMPDH1 and 2 by siRNA led to comparable growth inhibition while no significant further reduction in viability was observed when siRNA transfected cells were treated with ribavirin. The results showed that ribavirin inhibits these cancer targets and should thus be studied for cancer therapy. Source

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