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Alemany L.,Institute Catala dOncologia | Alemany L.,CIBER ISCIII | Alemany L.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Cubilla A.,National University of Asuncion | And 42 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2016

Background Invasive penile cancer is a rare disease with an approximately 22 000 cases per year. The incidence is higher in less developed countries, where penile cancer can account for up to 10% of cancers among men in some parts of Africa, South America, and Asia. Objective To describe the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA prevalence, HPV type distribution, and detection of markers of viral activity (ie, E6∗I mRNA and p16INK4a) in a series of invasive penile cancers and penile high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSILs) from 25 countries. A total of 85 penile HGSILs and 1010 penile invasive cancers diagnosed from 1983 to 2011 were included. Design, setting, and participants After histopathologic evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping were performed using the SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system, v.1 (Laboratory Biomedical Products, Rijswijk, The Netherlands). HPV DNA-positive cases were additionally tested for oncogene E6∗I mRNA and all cases for p16INK4a expression, a surrogate marker of oncogenic HPV activity. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis HPV DNA prevalence and type distributions were estimated. Results and limitations HPV DNA was detected in 33.1% of penile cancers (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.2-36.1) and in 87.1% of HGSILs (95% CI, 78.0-93.4). The warty-basaloid histologic subtype showed the highest HPV DNA prevalence. Among cancers, statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed only by geographic region and not by period or by age at diagnosis. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both HPV-positive cancers (68.7%) and HGSILs (79.6%). HPV6 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.7%). The p16INK4a upregulation and mRNA detection in addition to HPV DNA positivity were observed in 69.3% of HGSILs, and at least one of these HPV activity markers was detected in 85.3% of cases. In penile cancers, these figures were 22.0% and 27.1%, respectively. Conclusions About a third to a fourth of penile cancers were related to HPV when considering HPV DNA detection alone or adding an HPV activity marker, respectively. The observed HPV type distribution reinforces the potential benefit of current and new HPV vaccines in the reduction of HPV-related penile neoplastic lesions. Patient summary About one-third to one-quarter of penile cancers were related to human papillomavirus (HPV). The observed HPV type distribution reinforces the potential benefit of current and new HPV vaccines to prevent HPV-related penile neoplastic lesions. © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Rizzato C.,German Cancer Research Center | Kato I.,Wayne State University | Plummer M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | Munoz N.,National Cancer Institute of Colombia | Canzian F.,German Cancer Research Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

SNPs in the Prostate Stem Cell Antigen (PSCA) gene have been found associated with gastric cancer (GC) risk in a genome-wide association study. This association has been replicated in several populations. In this study we assessed the impact of PSCA genotype on the risk of advanced gastric precancerous lesions and GC. We used baseline gastric histopathology data and DNA from frozen gastric biopsies of 2045 subjects enrolled in a chemoprevention trial for gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela, and 180 cases of GC from the same area. We analyzed 3 SNPs in the PSCA gene (rs2294008, rs9297976 and rs12155758) which were previously found to be associated with GC risk in Europeans. The T allele of rs2294008 was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of atrophic gastritis (OR = 1.44; 95% CI 1.03-2.01 for the dominant model) and intestinal metaplasia (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.13-1.98 for the dominant model). We also confirmed the association with higher risk of gastric cancer (OR = 2.34; 95% CI 1.36-4.01 for the allele carriers). SNP rs12155758 was not associated with risk of gastric preneoplastic lesions, but we confirmed its association with higher GC risk (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.29-2.97 for dominant model). We tested the relevance of the presence of the Helicobacter pylori cagA gene, which is known to increase the risk of more severe gastric lesions, but we did not find any clearcut interaction with PSCA SNPs in defining risk of gastric precancerous lesions or cancer. © 2013 Rizzato et al. Source

Rizzato C.,German Cancer Research Center | Torres J.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS | Plummer M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | Munoz N.,National Cancer Institute of Colombia | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and can establish a long-term infection of the gastric mucosa. Persistent Hp infection often induces gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease, atrophic gastritis, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Virulent HP isolates harbor the cag (cytotoxin-associated genes) pathogenicity island (cagPAI), a 40 kb stretch of DNA that encodes components of a type IV secretion system (T4SS). This T4SS forms a pilus for the injection of virulence factors into host target cells, such as the CagA oncoprotein. We analyzed the genetic variability in cagA and other selected genes of the HP cagPAI (cagC, cagE, cagL, cagT, cagV and cag Gamma) using DNA extracted from frozen gastric biopsies or from clinical isolates. Study subjects were 95 cagA+ patients that were histologically diagnosed with chronic gastritis or gastric cancer in Venezuela and Mexico, areas with high prevalence of Hp infection. Sequencing reactions were carried out by both Sanger and next-generation pyrosequencing (454 Roche) methods. We found a total of 381 variants with unambiguous calls observed in at least 10% of the originally tested samples and reference strains. We compared the frequencies of these genetic variants between gastric cancer and chronic gastritis cases. Twenty-six SNPs (11 non-synonymous and 14 synonymous) showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05), and two SNPs, in position 1039 and 1041 of cagE, showed a highly significant association with cancer (p-value = 2.07×10 -6), and the variant codon was located in the VirB3 homology domain of Agrobacterium. The results of this study may provide preliminary information to target antibiotic treatment to high-risk individuals, if effects of these variants are confirmed in further investigations. © 2012 Rizzato et al. Source

Rizzato C.,German Cancer Research Center | Kato I.,Wayne State University | Plummer M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | Munoz N.,National Cancer Institute of Colombia | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

A higher incidence of stomach cancer in ABO blood type A individuals than in those with blood type O has been known for a long time. We studied this association in relation to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) of different cagA status. For our study, we used baseline gastric histopathology data and DNAs from frozen gastric biopsies of 2,077 subjects enrolled in a chemoprevention trial for gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela. We analyzed six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene, and we assessed the presence of the Hp cagA gene. Odds ratios (ORs) for risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions were calculated using individuals with normal gastric epithelium or non-atrophic gastritis as a reference. Among individuals carrying a cagA negative Hp infection or no Hp infection, those with blood type A had a lower risk of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.38-0.94). In carriers of cagA positive Hp strains, individuals with blood type A had a higher risk of IM or dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and a higher risk if compared to subjects carrying cagA negative strain and non-A blood group (OR=3.82, 95% CI=2.80-5.20). The interaction between Hp cagA status and blood type was statistically significant (p=0.0006). We showed that SNPs in the ABO gene, predictive of ABO blood groups, are associated with risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in individuals infected with Hp, but the assessment of the risk is strictly dependent on cagA status. Copyright © 2013 UICC. Source

Lazcano-Ponce E.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica | Stanley M.,University of Cambridge | Munoz N.,National Cancer Institute of Colombia | Torres L.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

For middle and low-income countries, the cost of HPV vaccines remains challenging. We conducted an open-label nonrandomized clinical trial evaluating immune response to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered on a standard (months (M) 0-1-6) versus extended schedule (M 0-6-60) at 7, 21, 60, 72 and 120 months post-vaccination. Participants were females recruited in Morelos, Mexico: 474 girls aged 9-10 years and 500 women aged 18-24 years receiving a standard schedule, and 1026 girls aged 9-10 years receiving an extended schedule (currently the girls in the extended schedule had received only the first 2 doses). This report presents the interim analysis results for non-inferiority between the regimes conducted with the current available data at 21 months after the first dose, with serum antibodies assessed by ELISA. A pre-stated margin of non-inferiority was defined by post-vaccination geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (upper 95% confidence interval [CI]. ≤. 2.0) between the standard and the two-dose schedule in girls at month 21. Immune response to the vaccine was strongest in adolescent girls and in the 3-dose group. Statistical non-inferiority of the two-dose versus three-dose groups was demonstrated. At 21 months, comparing the adolescent 2-dose versus 3-dose groups, the GMT ratio and 95% CI were 1.66 (1.55-1.81) and 1.67 (1.51-1.86) for HPV16 and 18, respectively. The two-dose regimen was non-inferior when compared to the three-dose response in same-age girls and with women aged 18-24 years after 21 months of follow-up. The reduction in the number of doses from the current three-dose schedule may lower overall costs associated with the vaccination and increase accessibility and compliance with the recommended dosing of the HPV vaccine. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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