Time filter

Source Type

Vithana P.V.S.C.,National Cancer Control Programme | Hemachandra N.N.,Family Health Bureau | Ariyaratne Y.,National Cancer Institute | Jayawardana P.L.,University of Kelaniya
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among women in Sri Lanka. Early detection can lead to reduction in morbidity and mortality. The objective here was to identify perceptions of public health midwives (PHMs) on the importance of early detection of breast cancer and deficiencies of and suggestions on improving existing breast cancer early detection services provided through Well Woman Clinics. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study using four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among 38 PHMs in the Gampaha district in Sri Lanka and the meetings were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using constant comparison and identifying themes and categories. Results: All the PHMs had a firm realization on the need of breast cancer early detection. The four FGDs among PHMs revealed non-availability of guidelines, inadequacy of training, lack of skills and material to provide health education, inability to provide privacy during clinical examination, shortage of stationery, lack of community awareness and motivation. The suggestions for the improvements of the programme identified in FGDs were capacity building of PHMs, making availability of guidelines, rescheduling clinics, improving the supervision, strengthening the monitoring, improving coordination between clinical and preventive sectors, and improving community awareness. Conclusions: Results of the FGDs can provide useful information on components to be improved in breast cancer early detection services. Study recommendations were training programmes at basic and post basic levels on a regular basis and supervision for the sustainance of the breast cancer early detection program.


Chiranthika Vithana P.V.S.,National Cancer Control Programme | Ariyaratne M.A.Y.,National Cancer Institute | Jayawardana P.L.,University of Kelaniya
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among Sri Lankan females, accounting for 26% of the cancer incidence in women. Early detection of breast cancer is conducted by public health midwives (PHMs)in the Well Woman Clinics. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention on improving knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on breast cancer screening among PHMs in the district of Gampaha. Materials and Methods: Two Medical Officer of Health (MOH) areas in Gampaha district were selected using random sampling as intervention (IG) and control (CG) groups. All the PHMs in the two MOH areas participated in the study, with totals of 38 in IG and 47 in CG. They were exposed to an educational intervention with the objective of using them to subsequently conduct the same among 35-59 year women inthe community. Following the intervention, post-intervention assessments were conducted at one month and six months to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Results: The overall median scores for KAP among PHMs respectively were as follows. Pre-intervention: IG:58%(IQR: 53- 69%), 90%(IQR: 70-100%) and 62%(IQR: 57-70%). CG: 64%(IQR: 56-69%), 90%(IQR: 70-90%) and 62%( IQR: 50-77%). Post-intervention: one month, IG:96%(IQR: 93-96%), 100%(IQR: 100-100%), and 85%(IQR: 81-89%). CG:67%(IQR: 60- 73%), 90%(IQR: 80-100%) and 65%(IQR: 50-73%). Post-intervention: six months, IG: 93% (IQR: 91-93%), 100%(IQR: 90- 100%), and 81%(IQR: 77-89%). CG: 67%(IQR: 58- 71%), 90%(IQR: 90-100%), and 62%( IQR: 58-73%). All the above post-intervention scores of PHMs in the IG were significantly higher in comparison to CG (p<0.001). Conclusions: This planned educational intervention had a significant impact on improving KAP of PHMs for early detection of breast cancer in the Gampaha district.


Amarasinghe H.K.,National Cancer Control Programme | Usgodaarachchi U.,Family Health Bureau | Kumaraarachchi M.,Oral Health Institute | Johnson N.W.,Griffith University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: While the protective role of antioxidant nutrients against cancer is well established, data on Asian diets in patients with oral cancer are meagre. Methods: A total of 1029 subjects over 30 years of age were investigated on their dietary practices in the Sabaragamuwa province (Sri Lanka) in 2006-07. Data collection tools were an interviewer-administered questionnaire, a three-day food diary and an examination of the oral cavity. Subjects identified with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD) and disease-free controls were analysed in a case-control fashion. Among the OPMDs, those with leukoplakia were separately considered. A further subgroup analysis was undertaken for β-carotene-rich foods. The analysis was stratified by portions of fruit/vegetables consumed as five or more portions and two or more portions daily. Results: A low BMI (<18.5) was a significant independent risk factor for the development of OPMD. More than half of both cases and controls consumed less than two portions of fruit/vegetables per day and only 20 subjects consumed more than five portions per day. Intake of more than two portions per day of β-carotene-containing fruits/vegetables significantly reduced the risk of having an OPMD and leukoplakia (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9). The significant differences observed with BMI and fruits/vegetables were attenuated when adjusted for betel quid chewing, smoking and alcohol use. Conclusions: This study discloses prevailing under-nutrition in this rural population with very low daily consumption of fruit/vegetables. Cancer preventive properties in their diets are limited and are swamped by the known carcinogenic agents associated with use of betel quid, tobacco and alcohol. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Laffoy M.,National Cancer Control Programme | McCarthy T.,National Cancer Control Programme | Mullen L.,National Cancer Control Programme | Byrne D.,University of Oxford | Martin J.,Dr Steevens Hospital
Irish medical journal | Year: 2013

Alcohol consumption is causally related to cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract, liver, colon, rectum, female breast and pancreas. The dose response relationship varies for each site. We calculated Ireland's cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol over a 10-year period. Between 2001 and 2010, 4,585 (4.7%) male and 4,593 (4.2%) female invasive cancer diagnoses were attributable to alcohol. The greatest risk was for the upper aero-digestive tract where 2,961 (52.9%) of these cancers in males and 866 (35.2%) in females were attributable to alcohol. Between 2001 and 2010, 2,823 (6.7%) of male cancer deaths and 1,700 (4.6%) of female cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol. Every year approximately 900 new cancers and 500 cancer deaths are attributable to alcohol. Alcohol is a major cause of cancer after smoking, obesity and physical inactivity. Public awareness of risk must improve. Over half of alcohol related cancers are preventable by adhering to Department of Health alcohol consumption guidelines.


PubMed | National Cancer Control Programme, University of Oxford and Dr Steevens Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Irish medical journal | Year: 2014

Alcohol consumption is causally related to cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract, liver, colon, rectum, female breast and pancreas. The dose response relationship varies for each site. We calculated Irelands cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol over a 10-year period. Between 2001 and 2010, 4,585 (4.7%) male and 4,593 (4.2%) female invasive cancer diagnoses were attributable to alcohol. The greatest risk was for the upper aero-digestive tract where 2,961 (52.9%) of these cancers in males and 866 (35.2%) in females were attributable to alcohol. Between 2001 and 2010, 2,823 (6.7%) of male cancer deaths and 1,700 (4.6%) of female cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol. Every year approximately 900 new cancers and 500 cancer deaths are attributable to alcohol. Alcohol is a major cause of cancer after smoking, obesity and physical inactivity. Public awareness of risk must improve. Over half of alcohol related cancers are preventable by adhering to Department of Health alcohol consumption guidelines.


Hedden L.,Canadian Center for Applied Research in Cancer Control | Hedden L.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Hedden L.,University of British Columbia | O'Reilly S.,National Cancer Control Programme | And 8 more authors.
Oncologist | Year: 2012

Background. Among women with surgically removed, high-risk HER-2/neu-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab has demonstrated significant improvements in disease-free and overall survival. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the currently recommended 12-month adjuvant protocol of trastuzumab using a Markov modeling approach and real-world cost data. Methods. A 10-health-state Markov model tracked patients' quarterly transitions between health states in the local and advanced states of breast cancer. Clinical data were obtained from the joint analysis of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project and North Central Cancer Treatment Group, as well as from the metastatic study conducted by Norum et al. Clinical outcomes were adjusted for quality of life using utility estimates published in a systematic review. Real cost data were obtained from the British Columbia Cancer Agency and were evaluated from a payer perspective. Costs and utilities were discounted at 5% per year, respectively, for a 28-year time horizon. Results. In the base case analysis, treatment with a 12-month adjuvant trastuzumab regimen resulted in a gain of 1.38 quality-adjusted life years or 1.17 life years gained at a cost of $18,133 per patient. Thus, the cost per QALY gained for the base case is $13,095. Cost per LYG is $15,492. Conclusions. Over the long term, treatment of HER-2/ neu mutation positive breast cancer with a 12-month protocol of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting is predicted to be cost-effective in a Canadian context. ©AlphaMed Press.


PubMed | National Cancer Control Programme
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology | Year: 2013

While the protective role of antioxidant nutrients against cancer is well established, data on Asian diets in patients with oral cancer are meagre.A total of 1029 subjects over 30 years of age were investigated on their dietary practices in the Sabaragamuwa province (Sri Lanka) in 2006-07. Data collection tools were an interviewer-administered questionnaire, a three-day food diary and an examination of the oral cavity. Subjects identified with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD) and disease-free controls were analysed in a case-control fashion. Among the OPMDs, those with leukoplakia were separately considered. A further subgroup analysis was undertaken for -carotene-rich foods. The analysis was stratified by portions of fruit/vegetables consumed as five or more portions and two or more portions daily.A low BMI (<18.5) was a significant independent risk factor for the development of OPMD. More than half of both cases and controls consumed less than two portions of fruit/vegetables per day and only 20 subjects consumed more than five portions per day. Intake of more than two portions per day of -carotene-containing fruits/vegetables significantly reduced the risk of having an OPMD and leukoplakia (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9). The significant differences observed with BMI and fruits/vegetables were attenuated when adjusted for betel quid chewing, smoking and alcohol use.This study discloses prevailing under-nutrition in this rural population with very low daily consumption of fruit/vegetables. Cancer preventive properties in their diets are limited and are swamped by the known carcinogenic agents associated with use of betel quid, tobacco and alcohol.

Loading National Cancer Control Programme collaborators
Loading National Cancer Control Programme collaborators