Goyang, South Korea
Goyang, South Korea

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Oh J.-K.,Karolinska Institutet | Oh J.-K.,National Cancer Control Institute | Weiderpass E.,Karolinska Institutet | Weiderpass E.,Folkhalsan Research Center | Weiderpass E.,University of Tromsø
Annals of Global Health | Year: 2014

Background Infection is one of the main risk factors for cancer. Objectives Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and disease burden of infection-related cancers were reviewed by infectious agents. Findings Chronic infection with Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, human papillomavirus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, Helicobacter pylori, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and Schistosoma haematobium are associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma; lymphoma and leukemia, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; Kaposi sarcoma; oropharyngeal carcinoma; cervical carcinoma and carcinoma of other anogential sites; adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma; gastric carcinoma; cholangiocarcinoma; and urinary bladder cancer. In 2008, approximately 2 million new cancer cases (16%) worldwide were attributable to infection. If these infections could be prevented and/or treated, it is estimated that there would be about 23% fewer cancers in less developed regions of the world, and about 7% fewer cancers in more developed regions. Conclusion Widespread application of existing public health methods for the prevention of infection, such as vaccination, safer injection practices, quality-assured screening of all donated blood and blood components, antimicrobial treatments, and safer sex practices, including minimizing one's lifetime number of sexual partners and condom use, could have a substantial effect on the future burden of cancer worldwide. © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.


Katanoda K.,Center for Cancer Control and Information Services | Jiang Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Park S.,Yonsei University | Lim M.K.,National Cancer Control Institute | And 2 more authors.
Tobacco Control | Year: 2014

East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multicomponent quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia.


Park M.,Sookmyung Womens University | Song D.Y.,National Cancer Control Institute | Je Y.,Kyung Hee University | Lee J.E.,Sookmyung Womens University
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and incidence of biliary tract disease. Methods: We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of prospective studies by searching the database of PubMed and EMBASE published up to December 31, 2013. Outcome of interest was disease of biliary tract system (gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct and Ampullar of Vater). We used a random-effects model to combine the study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) from 22 prospective studies. We examined whether BMI was associated with a higher risk of biliary tract disease in a combined analysis. Results: The positive association was stronger for non-cancer biliary tract disease than biliary tract cancer; combined RRs (95% CIs) comparing the top with bottom categories were 1.40 (1.15-1.65) for biliary tract cancer and 2.75 (2.35-3.15) for non-cancer biliary tract disease ( P for difference. <. 0.001). For non-cancer biliary tract disease, combined RRs (95% CIs) comparing the top with bottom categories were 3.21 (2.48-3.93) for women and 2.01 (1.66-2.37) for men ( P for difference = 0.04). Conclusion: Obesity is associated with higher risks of biliary tract cancer and, to a greater extent, non-cancer biliary tract disease. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Park B.,National Cancer Control Institute | Park J.,Catholic University of Daegu | Jun J.K.,National Cancer Control Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment, depression, and comorbidity of the two conditions and related factors in subjects aged in early 60s. This cross-sectional study included 3,174 inhabitants aged 60-64 years old in a rural area of Korea. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), and depression was measured using the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment (MMSE-K≤24) was 17.4%, that of depression was 26.0% (GDS-15≥8), and the comorbidity was 7.1%. Female gender, living with one housemate, and high GDS-15 score were significantly associated with increased cognitive impairment. Employment status and more years of schooling were associated with a decreased probability of cognitive impairment. Increased depression was significantly associated with bereavement and receiving benefits from the Medical Aid Program. Employed status, more years of schooling, and higher MMSE-K scores were significantly associated with decreased depression. The risk of comorbidity was associated with bereavement and receipt of Medical Aid benefits (odds ratio[OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.26-2.71; OR, 5.02; 95% CI, 2.37-10.63; respectively). Employment and more years of schooling were associated with a lower risk of comorbidity (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.34-0.62, P-trend <0.01). The correlated factors for cognitive impairment, depression, and comorbidity of the two conditions were similar, and employment status and years of schooling were associated with all three conditions. © 2013 Park et al.


Choi K.S.,National Cancer Center | Suh M.,National Cancer Control Institute
Clinical Endoscopy | Year: 2014

Gastric cancer screening is common in countries with high prevalence rates of gastric cancer. However, data supporting the effectiveness of gastric cancer screening are lacking. Thus, the aim of this review was to examine the current evidence on gastric cancer screening. Herein, we reviewed radiographic and endoscopic tests as methods of gastric cancer screening. Previous cohort studies and case-control studies have demonstrated reduced gastric cancer mortality in study populations that had undergone gastric cancer screening with ra-diographic tests. Recently, a case-control study in Japan reported a 30% reduction in gastric cancer mortality when screening was undertaken via endoscopy. Also, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer exhibited higher sensitivity and specifcity than radiographic screening. Moreover, most cost-efectiveness analyses on the best strategy for detecting early gastric cancer have generally concluded that endoscopy is more cost-effective than radiographic testing. Although data on the impact of endoscopy screening programs on gastric cancer mortality are limited, recent study results suggest that gastric cancer screening by endoscopy in average-risk populations performs better than radiography screening. Further evaluation of the impact of these screening methods should take into account cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality. © 2014 Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.


In the Republic of Korea, nationwide government-supported Smoking Cessation Clinics have been operating in 253 public health centres since 2004, but the cost and effectiveness of the service have yet to be evaluated. The cost of the service (staff salary, medication, education and promotion and overhead) was calculated from the Smoking Cessation Clinic's 2009 financial report. The number of service users, self-reported 4-week and 6-month quit rates and the proportion of nicotine replacement therapy users were collected from the service's performance monitoring data. Long-term quit rate and life-years saved by quitting were estimated and used in addition to monitoring data to evaluate the effectiveness of the service. A total of 354 554 smokers used the Smoking Cessation Clinics in 2009. The self-reported 4-week and 6-month quit rates were 78% and 40%, respectively. Estimated 1-year and 8-year quit rates were 28.1% and 12.9%, respectively. The cost of the service in 2009 was US$21 127 thousand. Cost per service user who set a quit date was US$60. Cost per service user who maintained cessation at 4 weeks, 6 months and 1 year was US$76, US$149 and US$212, respectively. When considering 8-year quit rates, the cost per life-year saved was estimated at US$128 in the base scenario and increased to US$230 in the worst-case scenario. The nationwide government-supported public health centre-based Smoking Cessation Clinics provided highly cost-effective service at a level of 0.46% of the per capita gross domestic product.


Kye S.Y.,National Cancer Control Institute | Park K.,National Cancer Control Institute
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: Happiness has been associated with a range of favorable health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between happiness and health behaviors, stress, and environmental aspects of exercise in a Korean national representative sample.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using multiple-stratified random sampling on the Korea Census of 2005. In October 2009, investigators conducted 15-min face-to-face interviews with 1,530 South Korean volunteers aged between 30 and 69 years. The questionnaire included questions about sociodemographic factors, perceived stress, smoking, drinking, healthy diet, exercise, exercise environment, and happiness levels.Results: The multivariate analysis revealed that middle-aged participants were less likely to be happy than younger and older participants, and higher happiness was associated with being part of a couple, higher income, lower stress, healthy diet, exercise, and certain exercise environments (e.g., mountain trails).Conclusions: Besides individual-level sociodemographic conditions, such as income or psychological status, community-level conditions, such as environment, should be considered when national and community public welfare policy is established. © 2014, Swiss School of Public Health.


Shin A.,National Cancer Control Institute | Shin A.,National Cancer Center Research Institute | Jung K.-W.,National Cancer Control Institute | Won Y.-J.,National Cancer Control Institute
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

To clarify the trend in colorectal cancer mortality in Asian countries. We analyzed the colorectal cancer mortality in four Asian countries using the World Health Organization mortality database and the Korea National Statistics Office database. The annual age-standardized rates and truncated rated for the three age groups (30-49, 50-69 and ≥ 70 years) for Hong Kong of China (1969-2009), Japan (1955-2009), South Korea (1985-2006), and Singapore (1966-2009) were estimated. A joinpoint regression model was used to detect significant trends in mortality rates. Colorectal cancer mortality in men started to decrease in 1992 in Japan followed by Singapore and Hong Kong of China in 1995. The mortality rates in women stared to decrease in 1980 in Singapore, followed by Hong Kong of China and Japan in 1996. In all countries and both genders, except for women in Singapore, the decrease in mortality began in the younger age groups. The colorectal cancer mortality in the four studied Asian countries has started to decrease, and the decrease occurred first in the younger age groups. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.


Park B.,National Cancer Control Institute | Jun J.K.,National Cancer Control Institute | Park J.,Catholic University of Daegu
Geriatrics and Gerontology International | Year: 2014

Aim: We evaluated the impact of cognitive impairment and depression on functional impairment in people aged in their early 60s. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 3034 inhabitants of a rural area of Korea aged 60-64 years. The Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and Lawton's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale were used to assess cognitive impairment, depression and functional impairment. Results: A total of 30.8% of participants reported that they were dependent for at least one of the items on the IADL scale, and the overall prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression was 17.3% and 25.9%, respectively. The results showed that cognitive impairment had a stronger relationship with IADL impairment than did depression (odds ratio [OR]=4.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.91-6.17; c-statistics=0.647 and OR=2.05, 95% CI 1.67-2.50; c-statistics=0.622, respectively). In particular, subclinical levels of the MMSE-K and GDS-15 score were associated with IADL impairment in participants without cognitive impairment or depression (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.80, OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16, per 1point score increase, respectively). Only the MMSE-K score showed a significant association in participants with either cognitive impairment or depression, or both. Our findings also showed the independent association of IADL impairment with age, employment status, education and type of insurance. Conclusions: Compared with depression, cognitive impairment was more strongly associated with IADL impairment. Subclinical level of cognitive impairment and depression were also associated with IADL impairment in mentally healthy participants. Therefore, early intervention is required to prevent further decline. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.


Choi K.S.,National Cancer Control Institute
Journal of women's health (2002) | Year: 2010

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Korean American women and among Korean women in Korea. However, many Asian women are not aware of the importance of screening mammography. This study compares breast cancer screening in Korean women in California and in Korea. The 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and 2005 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) were used to examine breast cancer screening and related factors. The sample included 252 Korean American women in California and 889 Korean women aged > or = 40 years. Logistic regression was used to predict the odds of having had a screening mammography in the past 2 years. For CHIS data, SUDAAN software (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC) was used to take into account the design of the complex and multistage samples. Korean women reported a lower rate than Korean American women of ever having had a screening mammography (50.8% vs. 77.8%). Korean women also had lower rates of having had a screening mammography in the past 2 years than Korean American women (39.5% vs. 57.2%). Korean Americans were less likely to undergo screening mammography if they were older. Korean women were less likely to undergo screening mammography if they were older, unemployed, lacked private cancer insurance, lacked health checkups, did not exercise, had poor health status, or currently smoked. We found significant differences in cancer screening behavior in Korean women depending on where they lived. These differences may indicate an important influence of social factors on preventive health behavior.

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