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Goyang, South Korea

Choi K.S.,National Cancer Center | Suh M.,National Cancer Control Institute
Clinical Endoscopy | Year: 2014

Gastric cancer screening is common in countries with high prevalence rates of gastric cancer. However, data supporting the effectiveness of gastric cancer screening are lacking. Thus, the aim of this review was to examine the current evidence on gastric cancer screening. Herein, we reviewed radiographic and endoscopic tests as methods of gastric cancer screening. Previous cohort studies and case-control studies have demonstrated reduced gastric cancer mortality in study populations that had undergone gastric cancer screening with ra-diographic tests. Recently, a case-control study in Japan reported a 30% reduction in gastric cancer mortality when screening was undertaken via endoscopy. Also, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer exhibited higher sensitivity and specifcity than radiographic screening. Moreover, most cost-efectiveness analyses on the best strategy for detecting early gastric cancer have generally concluded that endoscopy is more cost-effective than radiographic testing. Although data on the impact of endoscopy screening programs on gastric cancer mortality are limited, recent study results suggest that gastric cancer screening by endoscopy in average-risk populations performs better than radiography screening. Further evaluation of the impact of these screening methods should take into account cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality. © 2014 Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Source

In the Republic of Korea, nationwide government-supported Smoking Cessation Clinics have been operating in 253 public health centres since 2004, but the cost and effectiveness of the service have yet to be evaluated. The cost of the service (staff salary, medication, education and promotion and overhead) was calculated from the Smoking Cessation Clinic's 2009 financial report. The number of service users, self-reported 4-week and 6-month quit rates and the proportion of nicotine replacement therapy users were collected from the service's performance monitoring data. Long-term quit rate and life-years saved by quitting were estimated and used in addition to monitoring data to evaluate the effectiveness of the service. A total of 354 554 smokers used the Smoking Cessation Clinics in 2009. The self-reported 4-week and 6-month quit rates were 78% and 40%, respectively. Estimated 1-year and 8-year quit rates were 28.1% and 12.9%, respectively. The cost of the service in 2009 was US$21 127 thousand. Cost per service user who set a quit date was US$60. Cost per service user who maintained cessation at 4 weeks, 6 months and 1 year was US$76, US$149 and US$212, respectively. When considering 8-year quit rates, the cost per life-year saved was estimated at US$128 in the base scenario and increased to US$230 in the worst-case scenario. The nationwide government-supported public health centre-based Smoking Cessation Clinics provided highly cost-effective service at a level of 0.46% of the per capita gross domestic product. Source

Choi K.S.,National Cancer Control Institute
Journal of women's health (2002) | Year: 2010

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Korean American women and among Korean women in Korea. However, many Asian women are not aware of the importance of screening mammography. This study compares breast cancer screening in Korean women in California and in Korea. The 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and 2005 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) were used to examine breast cancer screening and related factors. The sample included 252 Korean American women in California and 889 Korean women aged > or = 40 years. Logistic regression was used to predict the odds of having had a screening mammography in the past 2 years. For CHIS data, SUDAAN software (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC) was used to take into account the design of the complex and multistage samples. Korean women reported a lower rate than Korean American women of ever having had a screening mammography (50.8% vs. 77.8%). Korean women also had lower rates of having had a screening mammography in the past 2 years than Korean American women (39.5% vs. 57.2%). Korean Americans were less likely to undergo screening mammography if they were older. Korean women were less likely to undergo screening mammography if they were older, unemployed, lacked private cancer insurance, lacked health checkups, did not exercise, had poor health status, or currently smoked. We found significant differences in cancer screening behavior in Korean women depending on where they lived. These differences may indicate an important influence of social factors on preventive health behavior. Source

Katanoda K.,Center for Cancer Control and Information Services | Jiang Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Park S.,Yonsei University | Lim M.K.,National Cancer Control Institute | And 2 more authors.
Tobacco Control | Year: 2014

East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multicomponent quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. Source

Lee M.K.,Dong - A University | Park H.-A.,Seoul National University | Yun Y.H.,Seoul National University | Chang Y.J.,National Cancer Control Institute
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2013

Background: Most dietary and exercise interventions developed to date for cancer survivors have employed intensive clinic-based face-to-face counseling sessions. However, when the clinic-based face-to-face intervention ends, the participants cannot receive feedback from the experts, and the motivation for regular exercise and diet practices decreases. One way to overcome the shortcomings of clinic-based face-to-face intervention is to employ the Internet to this end. To maximize effectiveness when providing Web-based interventions, action planning should be able to start at the right time, education should be tailored to motivational readiness, and self-efficacy should be enhanced at appropriate intervals. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a Web-based self-management diet and exercise intervention program with the aid of the transtheoretical model (TTM) and to conduct formative evaluations. Methods: The Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention program was developed employing a 5-phase system development life-cycle (SDLC) method. The 5 phases were 1) identification of user requirements, 2) system design, 3) system development, 4) system evaluation, and 5) system application. An expert group composed of 3 content experts, a Web developer, and 2 Web designers, evaluated the usability and accuracy of the content. The program was evaluated by 30 breast cancer survivors for perceived ease of use. Results: The Web-based self-managed exercise and diet intervention program contained 5 components differing in screen layout. These components are introduction, assessment, education (tailored information provision), action planning (goal setting, scheduling, keeping a diary), and automatic feedback. Education, action planning, and automatic feedback were tailored to each participant through the assessment. The processes of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance, which are the principal strategies encouraging behavioral change according to the TTM theory, were reflected in the education, and self-efficacy was also reflected in the automatic feedback. After iterative testing by experts on problems that arose in terms of usability and content accuracy during system operation, the perceived ease of use of the program was evaluated by 29 breast cancer survivors. The end users rated the program as being easy to understand and use (a total usability score of 81.3 points). In addition, program feasibility was evaluated using the percentage of patients (27/30, 90%) who consistently used the program. Conclusions: The use of Internet technology allowed immediate and easy access to interventions, real-time monitoring of progress, online education, tailored action planning, and tailored short message services using mobile phones. Source

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