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PubMed | Red Cross, Chi Mei Medical Center, Nihon University, National Cancer Center Hospital East and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: Digestive endoscopy : official journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society | Year: 2016

Endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors consists of the following processes: (i) detection; (ii) differential diagnosis; and (iii) quantitative diagnosis (size and depth) of a lesion. Although detection is the first step to make a diagnosis of the tumor, the lesion can be overlooked if an endoscopist has no knowledge of what an early-stage superficial lesion looks like. In recent years, image-enhanced endoscopy has become common, but white-light endoscopy (WLI) is still the first step for detection and characterization of lesions in general clinical practice. Settings and practice of routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) such as use of antispasmodics, number of endoscopic images taken, and observational procedure are customarily decided in each facility in each country and are not well standardized. Therefore, in the present article, we attempted to outline currently available evidence and actual Japanese practice on gastric cancer screening using WLI, and provide tips for detecting EGC during routine EGD which could become the basis of future research.


Ban D.,University of Tokyo | Shimada K.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Konishi M.,National Cancer Center Hospital East | Saiura A.,Cancer Institute Hospital | And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: The pancreatic fistula rate following distal pancreatectomy ranges widely, from 13.3 to 64.0 %. The optimal closure method of the pancreatic remnant remains controversial, especially regarding whether to use a stapler. Methods: All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy in five Japanese hospitals from January 2001 to June 2009 were included in this study. All relevant, anonymized medical records were entered into an electronic case report form. Complications and pancreatic fistulas were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery grading system, respectively. Results: Of the 388 patients, stapler closure and nonstapler closure were used after distal pancreatectomy in 224 patients (57.7 %) and 164 patients (42.3 %), respectively. Clinically relevant pancreatic fistulas (grades B and C) occurred in 47 patients (21.0 %) treated by stapler closure, which was a significantly lower rate than that for the 83 patients (50.6 %) treated by nonstapler closure. There were no surgical mortalities or in-hospital deaths. The distribution of postoperative complications was grade 1, 30.7 % (n = 119); grade 2, 40.2 % (n = 156); grade 3a, 0.1 % (n = 5); grade 3b, 0.3 % (n = 1); grade 4a, 0.3 % (n = 1). In the multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus, previous laparotomy, operating time, and method of stump closure were found to be independently associated with the development of a clinical pancreatic fistula. Conclusions: Stapler closure is a safe, efficient alternative to standard suture closure techniques because the clinical fistula rate is significantly lower. © Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2012.


PubMed | Clinical Pathology Laboratories and National Cancer Center Central Hospital
Type: | Journal: BMJ case reports | Year: 2014

Adenocarcinoma of the pigmented ciliary epithelium is an exceptionally rare eye tumour, with only a few cases reported to date. We encountered such a case in a 50-year-old woman who reported seeing floaters in her right eye. Fundus examination and MRI revealed an elevated lesion located in the ciliary body compressing the lens. The ciliary body was resected under the diagnosis of ciliary adenoma. On histological examination, the tumour exhibited epithelial features with glandular formation and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. The tumour invaded the subepithelial stroma of the ciliary body. Immunohistochemical findings were positive for cytokeratin OSCAR, AE1/AE3, CK7, EMA, S100, Melan A, HMB45, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor.


Yamamoto Y.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Ojima H.,National Cancer Center Research Institute | Shimada K.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Onaya H.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2010

A 72-year-old man was found to have a 40 mm mass in liver segment VIII during follow-up abdominal ultrasonography for type C viral hepatitis. Abdominal ultrasound showed a well-defined mass containing a cystic component, and computed tomographic hepatic arteriography showed heterogeneous enhancement except for cystic necrosis. Under a pre-operative diagnosis of atypical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), partial resection of liver segment VIII was performed. The encapsulated tumor consisted of a peripheral solid component with a central necrotic area. Histologically, the solid component had a two-layer structure, an HCC component in the external area and a sarcomatous component with neoplastic osteoid formation in the internal area, showing histological transition. Immunohistochemically, the HCC component was positive for hepatocyte antigen and negative for vimentin. The Ki-67 labeling index was found to increase from 5% to 58% with increasing histologic atypia. The sarcomatous component was positive for vimentin and negative for pan-keratin and hepatocyte antigen, with a Ki-67 labeling index of >90%. These findings led to a diagnosis of primary hepatic carcinosarcoma. Although previously reported patients with hepatic carcinosarcoma showed early metastasis with a very poor outcome, this patient has remained free of recurrence for 30 months, which is the longest recurrence-free survival time recorded for this type of cancer. Since relatively early-stage hepatic carcinosarcoma rarely seems to present as a small tumor showing a concentric growth pattern, we report this case with a review of the literature. © The Author (2009). Published by Oxford University Press.


Hashimoto R.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Sofue K.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Takeuchi Y.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Shibamoto K.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Arai Y.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

A 76-year-old woman with hepatitis C cirrhosis presented with tarry stools and hematemesis. An endoscopy demonstrated bleeding duodenal varices in the second portion of the duodenum. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed markedly tortuous varices around the wall in the duodenum. Several afferent veins appeared to have developed, and the right ovarian vein draining into the inferior vena cava was detected as an efferent vein. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of the varices using cyanoacrylate was successfully performed in combination with the temporary occlusion of the portal vein. Although no previous publications have used cyanoacrylate as an embolic agent for BRTO to control bleeding duodenal varices, this strategy can be considered as an alternative procedure to conventional BRTO using ethanolamine oleate when numerous afferent vessels that cannot be embolized are present. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.


Yamamoto Y.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Sakamoto Y.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Ban D.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Shimada K.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: The clinical impact of the distal pancreatectomy with en-bloc celiac axis resection for locally advanced pancreatic body cancer remains unclear. Methods: We reviewed the records of 13 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy-celiac axis resection between 1991 and 2009, 58 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic body cancer involving major vessels, the extrapancreatic neural plexus or other organs (T4 according to the Japanese stage classification) between 1991 and 2009, and 24 patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer without distant metastases (unresectable group) between 2001 and 2009. The clinicopathologic factors and overall survival among the 3 groups were compared. Results: The distal pancreatectomy-celiac axis resection group was associated with a significantly higher incidence of morbidity (92% vs 60%, P =.03) and positive surgical margins (69% vs 26%, P =.003) than the distal pancreatectomy group; however, no survival difference was found between the 2 groups. No survivor has lived more than 3 years after operation in the distal pancreatectomy-celiac axis resection group. The distal pancreatectomy-celiac axis resection group had a significantly better prognosis than the unresectable group (median survival time, 20.8 vs 9.8 months; P =.01). Conclusion: Aggressive resection for T4 pancreatic body cancer by distal pancreatectomy-celiac axis resection can be justified for otherwise unresectable tumors. The surgical indication should be evaluated carefully because of the higher incidence of morbidity and lower incidence of curability compared with distal pancreatectomy, as well as because there have been no long-term survivors so far. © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


Precise assessment of retroperitoneal invasion is clinically important to allow the achievement of negative margin resections. The clinical records of 132 patients who underwent macroscopic curative pancreaticoduodenectomy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas between 2004 and 2008 were retrospectively examined. The clinicopathological factors, including retroperitoneal fat infiltration classified into four groups by multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), were analyzed. The relationship between the grade of retroperitoneal fat infiltration and surgical outcomes, as well as various histopathological factors, was also investigated. The 5 year survival rate was 55.6 % for grade 0 infiltration (n = 8), 38.7 % for grade 1 (n = 54), 16.4 % for grade 2 (n = 49), and 0 % for grade 3 (n = 21). There were significant differences in survival in each group. Extrapancreatic nerve invasion and the surgical margin status were significantly associated with retroperitoneal fat infiltration demonstrated on MDCT. According to the grading classification among the 43 patients with pathological portal vein invasion, the 5 year survival rate was 45.9 % for patients with grade 1, which was significantly better survival that those with grade 2 (P = 0.007). The grading criteria for retroperitoneal fat infiltration may be useful as a predictor of survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head carcinoma. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with portal vein resection could provide favorable survival in patients with grade 1 retroperitoneal fat infiltration, even if histopathological portal vein invasion is present.


Yamamoto Y.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Shimada K.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Sakamoto Y.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | Esaki M.,National Cancer Center Central Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences | Year: 2011

Background: Despite recent advances in surgical techniques, hepatectomies remain one of the most hemorrhagic procedures in abdominal surgery. It is important to identify preoperatively patients who are at high risk of suffering massive intraoperative blood loss. Methods: The clinical records of 251 patients who underwent an elective hepatectomy for liver tumors between September 2007 and December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of preoperative factors potentially influencing intraoperative blood loss was performed. We set the cut-off value of the amount of blood loss for safe hepatectomy as less than 1,500 mL because no patients with blood loss of less than 1,500 mL received blood transfusion in this study. A scoring system to predict blood loss of more than 1,500 mL was constructed and validated in a cohort of 59 subsequent patients. Results: Intraoperative blood loss of more than 1,500 mL was recognized in 35 of 251 patients (13.9%). Prothrombin activity < 70%, non-peripheral location of the tumor, involvement of hepatic veins, body mass index ≥ 23.0, and major hepatectomy were independently associated with intraoperative blood loss of more than 1,500 mL. The score was calculated by assigning 1 point for each of the 5 risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.814 (95% CI 0.731-0.898). This scoring system was highly predictive in the subsequent validation group of 59 patients (AUC = 0.839, 95% CI 0.710-0.969). Conclusion: This predictive scoring system is considered to be useful for identifying before hepatectomy those patients with a high risk of intraoperative blood loss of more than 1,500 mL. © 2011 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery and Springer.


Precise assessment of retroperitoneal invasion is clinically important to allow the achievement of negative margin resections.The clinical records of 132 patients who underwent macroscopic curative pancreaticoduodenectomy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas between 2004 and 2008 were retrospectively examined. The clinicopathological factors, including retroperitoneal fat infiltration classified into four groups by multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), were analyzed. The relationship between the grade of retroperitoneal fat infiltration and surgical outcomes, as well as various histopathological factors, was also investigated.The 5 year survival rate was 55.6 % for grade 0 infiltration (n = 8), 38.7 % for grade 1 (n = 54), 16.4 % for grade 2 (n = 49), and 0 % for grade 3 (n = 21). There were significant differences in survival in each group. Extrapancreatic nerve invasion and the surgical margin status were significantly associated with retroperitoneal fat infiltration demonstrated on MDCT. According to the grading classification among the 43 patients with pathological portal vein invasion, the 5 year survival rate was 45.9 % for patients with grade 1, which was significantly better survival that those with grade 2 (P = 0.007).The grading criteria for retroperitoneal fat infiltration may be useful as a predictor of survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head carcinoma. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with portal vein resection could provide favorable survival in patients with grade 1 retroperitoneal fat infiltration, even if histopathological portal vein invasion is present.


PubMed | National Cancer Center Central Hospital
Type: Case Reports | Journal: World journal of gastroenterology | Year: 2013

A 76-year-old woman with hepatitis C cirrhosis presented with tarry stools and hematemesis. An endoscopy demonstrated bleeding duodenal varices in the second portion of the duodenum. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed markedly tortuous varices around the wall in the duodenum. Several afferent veins appeared to have developed, and the right ovarian vein draining into the inferior vena cava was detected as an efferent vein. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of the varices using cyanoacrylate was successfully performed in combination with the temporary occlusion of the portal vein. Although no previous publications have used cyanoacrylate as an embolic agent for BRTO to control bleeding duodenal varices, this strategy can be considered as an alternative procedure to conventional BRTO using ethanolamine oleate when numerous afferent vessels that cannot be embolized are present.

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