Nwani C.D.,National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Canal Ring Road |
Nwani C.D.,Ebonyi State University |
Nwachi D.A.,Ebonyi State University |
Okogwu O.I.,Ebonyi State University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2010
A study was conducted between March 2006 and February 2007 to assess the concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Cr in the gills and muscles of six fish species (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Clarias anguillaris, Tillapia zillii, Mormyrus rume rume, Mormyrus macrophthalmus and Mormyrus tapirus) from lotic freshwater ecosystem at Afikpo South- East Nigeria using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. In all the fish species studied the concentration of metals in the gills was significantly higher than that of the muscles (p<0.05). While the highest concentration (mg l-1) of Fe (702.20±0.04), Zn (34.40±0.02), Cu (2.10±0.01), Mn (4.91±0.08) Pb (0.50±0.02) and Cr (1.12±0.07) were recorded in the gills of C. nigrodigitatus, that in the muscles were recorded in T. zillii (443.20±0.08, 23.30±0.06,1.33±0.06,3.09±0.02,0. 31±0.01 and 0.66±0.04 for Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb and Cr respectively). The lowest concentration of all the heavy metals in the gills was recorded in M. tapirus (309.00±0.07, 16.45±0.03, 0.92±0.04, 2.15±0.04, 0.21±0.01 and 0.50±0.06 mg l-1 for Fe, Zn, Cu Mn, Pb and Cr respectively) while the lowest in the muscles was recorded in C. angularis [Fe (186.00±0.07), Zn (14.20±0.08), Cu (0.56±0.03), Mn (1.30±0.02), Pb (0.10±0.01) and Cr (0.28±0.04)]. The order of heavy metals concentrations in both the gills and muscles was Fe>Zn>Mn> Cu> Cr>Pb. While the concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb both in the muscles and gills of all the six fish species studied were within the WHO and FEPA prescribed limits, that of Fe(except in the muscles), Mn and Cr were above the prescribed limits thus indicating contamination of the fish species by these metals. Fe has the highest bio-concentration factor (BCF) in both tissues while the least was Cu. Periodic monitoring of these metals in both fishes and river to ensure safety is advocated. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).
Rebello S.C.,National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Canal Ring Road |
Rathore G.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education |
Punia P.,National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Canal Ring Road |
Sood N.,National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Canal Ring Road |
Elangovan V.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Animal | Year: 2014
A long-term thymic macrophage cell line from the thymus explants of Labeo rohita designated as LRTM (L. rohita thymic macrophages) was established, which has been maintained in culture for more than 1 yr. This cell line designated LRTM cells have been subcultured for 70 passages. The cells shape was initially long and elongated; with subsequent passages, the cells became short and epithelial like. The cells exhibited optimum growth in L-15 containing 10% fetal bovine serum and also in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium at 37 C with 5% CO2 and showed 85+-% viability after 12 mo storage in liquid nitrogen. In addition, cells showed nonspecific esterase and surface expression of Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G and classes I and II major histocompatibility complex antigens. These observations confirmed that this cell line had the morphologic and functional features as a macrophage. The cells exhibited phagocytic activity by engulfing yeast cells as well as fluorescent latex beads, which was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and Giemsa staining. The long-term cultured cells show rapid production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates following stimulation with lipopolysaccharides and phorbol miristate acetate (PMA). Mostly, all the cells were alpha napthyl esterase acetate positive. After stimulation with PMA and lipopolysaccharide, cultured fish macrophages produced reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. The karyotype analysis showed that these cells have a tetraploid karyotype with 100 chromosomes in each cell, indicating that they are normal L. rohita cells. Amplification, sequencing, and alignment of fragments of two mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA from rohu confirmed that the cell line originated from L. rohita. This cell line should be useful for studying the role of thymic macrophages in differentiation and maturation of thymocytes and can be source of macrophage-specific enzymes and cytokines. The macrophage cell line will be invaluable in studies of pathogen/macrophage interactions, the mechanisms of macrophage antimicrobial effector functions and the contribution of macrophages to the specific immune responses of teleosts. © 2013 The Society for In Vitro Biology.