Dahiya S.,Kurukshetra University |
Sharma A.,National Bureau of Animal Genetics Resources
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014
Gastrointestinal disorders are the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diarrhea can be caused by several mechanisms including malabsorption, increased secretion of fluid, electrolytes and nutrients, motility disturbance, various types of diarrheal infections caused by microbes, antibiotic-associated diarrhea or due to stress. Such disturbances are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to the increasing dissemination of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms and the emergence of the so-called 'superbugs'. Taking into consideration these problems, the need for novel therapeutics is essential. Although probiotics are being used over a century, they have only been extensively researched in recent years. Their use in the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal disorders has yielded many successful results, some of which are outlined in this review. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that alter the enteric microflora and have a beneficial effect on health. Probiotics maintain the composition of micro-flora in the gut, enhance the immune system of the body and hence, prevent infections. Several health-related effects associated with the intake of probiotics are discussed here. Several clinical studies have been discussed which provide evidences for the efficacy of probiotics against these infections. Recently, a number of experiments have also been conducted mostly on intestinal cells to test the antiviral potential of probiotics against different viruses.
Das A.K.,Howrah KVK |
Mishra A.K.,National Bureau of Animal Genetics Resources |
Kokate L.S.,Panchayat Samiti Karanja
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014
The immunocompetence (IC) status of any animal breed indicates about its general response to diseases. Single hatched CARI-Debendra (CD) chicks (84) were evaluated for IC traits (in vivo antibody response to SRBC, serum lysozyme and serum IgG concentrations) and their association with production traits in layer. According to least square mean analysis, the CD population contains HA titre, serum lysozyme and serum IgG concentration of 5.739±0.436, 6.031±0.213μg/ml and 5.999±0.347μg/μl, respectively. But, the sex of CD bird has no significant effect on all the IC traits. Phenotypic correlations between the IC traits were low. The level of HA titre had no significant effect on any of the production trait. Serum lysozyme level had significant effect on BW40 and serum IgG had significant effect on EW28. Birds with medium or low serum lysozyme level revealed higher BW40 than birds with high level. Birds with high serum IgG concentration demonstrated higher EW28 than birds with low and medium levels.
Kishore A.,National Bureau of Animal Genetics Resources |
Kishore A.,Panjab University |
Mukesh M.,National Bureau of Animal Genetics Resources |
Sobti R.C.,Panjab University |
And 3 more authors.
Meta Gene | Year: 2014
The promoter region of kappa- casein (κ- CN) gene in Indian native cattle and buffalo breeds was sequenced and analyzed for nucleotide variations. Sequence comparison across breeds of Indian cattle revealed a total of 7 variations in the promoter region, of which - 515 G/T, - 427 C/T, - 385 C/T, - 283 A/G and - 251 C/T were located within consensus binding sites for octamer-binding protein (OCT1)/pregnancy specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), activator protein-2 (AP2), hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-1) and GAL4 transcription factors (TFs), respectively. These variations might be involved in gain or loss of potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Unlike the other 4 variants, the - 283 (A/G) variant located within HNF-1 TFBS was specific to Indian cattle as this change has not been observed in the Bos taurus sequence. Other TFBSs viz., MGF, TBP, NF-1, milk box and C/EBP were conserved across species. For the Indian native buffalo breeds, only 3 changes were identified in the promoter region; - 305 (A/C), - 160 (T/C) and - 141 (A/G) and most of the TFBSs were found to be conserved. However, deletion of two adjacent nucleotides located in and around binding site for C/EBP TF was identified in buffalo when compared with promoter sequence of bovine κ- CN. For κ- CN of Indian native cattle, a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed for variations 515 G/T, - 427 C/T and - 385 C/T in the promoter region; and for variations at codons 136 and 148 of exon-IV. Further, among intragenic haplotypes, variation - 427 C/T was found to be in LD with variations at codons 136 and 148. The information generated in the present work provides comprehensive characterization of κ- CN gene promoter and coding regions in Indian cattle and buffaloes and reported variations could become important candidates for carrying out further research in dairy traits. © 2014.