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PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, International Atomic Energy Agency, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology and a National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources
Type: | Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis | Year: 2017

The indigenous domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) which is domesticated from Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) contributes significantly to poor farming community in coastal and North Eastern regions of India. For conservation and maintenance of indigenous duck populations it is very important to know the existing genetic diversity and population structure. To unravel the population structure and genetic diversity among the five indigenous duck populations of India, the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 120 ducks were analyzed. The sequence analysis by comparison of mtDNA D-loop region (470bp) of five Indian duck populations revealed 25 mitochondrial haplotypes. Pairwise F

PubMed | a National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal biotechnology | Year: 2015

Haptoglobin (Hp) protein has high affinity for hemoglobin (Hb) binding during intravascular hemolysis and scavenges the hemoglobin induced free radicals. Earlier reports indicate about uniqueness of Hp molecule in human and cattle, but in other animals, it is not much studied. In this paper, we characterized buffalo Hp molecule and determined its molecular structure, evolutionary importance, and tissue expression. Comparative analysis and predicted domain structure indicated that the buffalo Hp has an internal duplicated region in -chain only similar to an alternate Hp2 allele in human. This duplicated part encoded for an extra complement control protein CCP domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that buffalo and other ruminants were found to group together separated from all other non-ruminants, including human. The key amino acid residues involved in Hp and Hb as well as Hp and macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163 interactions in buffalo, depicted a significant variation in comparison to other non-ruminant species. Constitutive expression of Hp was also confirmed across all the vital tissues of buffalo, for the first time. Results revealed that buffalo Hp is both structurally and functionally conserved, having internal duplication in -chain similar to human Hp2 and other ruminant species, which might have evolved separately as a convergent evolutionary process. Furthermore, the presence of extra Hp CCP domain possibly in all ruminants may have an effect during dimerization of molecule in these species.

PubMed | d Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Mahatma Phule Agricultural University and a National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal biotechnology | Year: 2016

Goats form the backbone of rural livelihood and financial security systems in India but their population is showing decreasing trend. Improvement of reproductive traits such as prolificacy offers a solution to stabilize the decreasing goat population and to meet the nutritional needs of growing human population. In the present study, six novel SNPs in three candidate genes for prolificacy (BMPR1B, BMP15, and GDF9) were genotyped in seven breeds of Indian goats to evaluate their association with litter size. Tetra primer ARMS-PCR and PCR-RFLP based protocols were developed for genotyping six novel SNPs, namely, T(-242)C in BMPR1B; G735A and C808G in BMP15; and C818T, A959C, and G1189A in GDF9 gene. The effect of breed was highly significant (p0.01) on litter size but the effect of genotype was nonsignificant. The effect of parity on litter size was also significant in the prolific Black Bengal breed. The litter size differences observed between breeds are attributed to breed differences. Novel mutations observed at different loci in GDF9, BMP15, and BMPR1B genes do not contribute to the reproductive capability of the investigated breeds. Further studies with more number of breeds and animals exploring association of these novel SNPs with reproductive traits may be fruitful.

PubMed | a National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal biotechnology | Year: 2014

The buffalo population of Uttar Pradesh (UP) constitutes 26.1% of the total buffalo population of India, yet this population has not been classified into distinct breeds or subpopulations due to lack of systematic study. Genetic variation at 30 microsatellite loci was examined and statistical analysis was carried out to reveal genetic diversity, demographic parameters of these buffaloes and to investigate the existence of population substructures underlying geographical distribution. The mean number of alleles per locus was 13.26 and mean effective number of alleles was 3.74, whereas mean observed and expected heterozygosities were found to be 0.57 and 0.67 in UP buffaloes. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on allele frequency data revealed subclustering of UP buffalo population. Bayesian analysis result also revealed clear membership of individuals into five clusters indicating a genetic subdivision within the UP buffalo population. The buffaloes of Western and Central regions of UP were subtly separated while buffaloes of Tarai area and Bhadawari buffaloes revealed distinctive population structure. The buffaloes of Mau, Ballia and Ghazipur districts of Eastern region also had a distinctive genetic structure. The analysis of data on buffaloes of Indo-Gangetic plains revealed that population was in mutation drift equilibrium. The observed mean M ratio in the population was above the critical significance value (Mc) suggesting that it has not suffered any severe reduction in effective population size. The statistical tests revealed a historical constancy of size of buffalo in this geographical area. The high level of genetic variability indicates UP buffalo population is a vast reservoir of genetic diversity and this shall help in taking informed conservation decisions and sustainable utilization.

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