ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms

Mau, India

ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms

Mau, India
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Singh D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Rajawat M.V.S.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Kaushik R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Prasanna R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Saxena A.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms
Plant and Soil | Year: 2017

Background and aim: Most of the food grains show deficiency of zinc. The study was carried out to evaluate the role of endophytes in the fortification of Zn in wheat genotypes with different nutrient use efficiency and in soils deficient and sufficient for Zn. Methods: Two zinc solubilizing endophytes (Bacillus subtilis DS-178 and Arthrobacter sp. DS-179) were used to inoculate low and high Zn accumulating genotypes in soils sufficient and deficient in Zn. Results: The data on different root morphological parameters, yield and accumulation of Zn indicated distinct variations among genotypes; soil types and also among the endophytes inoculated, un-inoculated and chemical fertilizer treatments. In general, the amount of Zn in grains due to inoculation of endophytes was 2 folds higher as compared to un-inoculated control. The low and high Zn accumulating genotypes responded in an almost identical manner to endophyte inoculation, irrespective of the soil types. Conclusion: Zn solubilizing endophytes can enhance the translocation and enrichment of Zn to grains in wheat genotypes, irrespective of their different nutrient use efficiency (Zn). This approach can be integrated into the modern strategies for biofortification. © 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Renu,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Bhoyar M.S.,Intellectual Property Management Unit | Singh U.B.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Sahu U.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2017

Soil and plant samples from black rot infected fields were processed to isolate wild type Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) bacteriophages by overlay agar method. Various Xcc strains were employed as indicator hosts. The aim of this study was to isolate and purify potential bacteriophages for their ability to lyse plant pathogenic strains of Xcc in vitro. Bacteriophages were purified and selected for further characterization based on their ability to produce clear lysis on plaque assay. Seventeen strains of pathogenic Xcc were tested for sensitivity to 31 phages isolated during the study. Lysis was graded subjectively as per standard. A virulent phage Xcc9SH3 isolated from soil sample from Lucknow was found to lyse all tested strains of Xcc in vitro. Characterization of Xcc9SH3 was done based on plaque morphology, phage titre, organic solvent sensitivity, effect of temperature and transmission electron microscopy. The size of long noncontractile tail of the phage was 100 nm in length and 10 nm in width with 20 nm diameter of head. The isometric head of the phage predicted to belong to Siphoviridae (dsDNA viruses) family of bacteriophages. These phages may be useful tool in specific and efficient detection and control of Xcc causing black rot disease in cole crops. © 2017, Edizioni ETS. All rights reserved.


Kumar M.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Jagannadham P.T.K.,ICAR Central Citrus Research Institute | Satheesh V.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Prasanna R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Saxena A.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2017

Abiotic stresses including high or low temperature are known to affect productivity in plants as well as microflora, and often heat shock proteins (Hsps) are induced in cells experiencing such heat stress. Hsp 70 which belongs to one of the five major families of Hsps, DnaK family, plays a vital role in the protection and recovery of cells damaged by heat stress. Further, the role of dnak gene encoding a protein related to Hsp70 in thermoregulation has been established already. In this study, we analyzed a set of thermotolerant bacilli for variation in the dnaK gene that codes for DnaK/Hsp70 protein. A part of the dnaK was amplified from seven different bacilli isolated from Manikaran hot springs, Himachal Pradesh, India. Phylogenetic analyses of dnaK in the set of strains generated four clusters, three representing highly thermotolerant strains and one, a moderately thermotolerant strain. However, analyses of deduced amino acid sequences generated only three clusters, two representing highly thermotolerant strains and one representing moderately thermotolerant strain. Comparison of DnaK of highly thermotolerant strain (M5) and moderately thermotolerant strain (M36) revealed polymorphism for 26 amino acids in the ATPase domain and for one amino acid in the substrate binding domain. It can be hypothesized that polymorphism in the DnaK could be linked to the difference in the temperature tolerance limit of the two strains. © 2017, National Institute of Science Communication. All rights reserved.


Bagul S.Y.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Bharti R.K.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute | Dhar D.W.,ICARIndian Agricultural Research Institute
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Microalgae are efficient source of renewable biodiesel which should be able to meet the global demand of transport fuels. The wastewater grown indigenous microalga Chlorella sp. for fuel quality parameters was evaluated. Microalgae were successfully grown in secondary treated wastewater diluted with tap water (25% dilution) in glass house. The microalga showed a dry weight of 0.849 g/L with 27.1% lipid content on dry weight basis on 21st day of incubation. After transesterification, fatty acid methyl ester yield was 80.64% with major fatty acids as palmitic, linoleic, oleic and linolenic. The physical parameters predicted from empirical equations in the biodiesel showed cetane number as 56.5, iodine value of 75.5 gI2/100 g, high heating value of 40.1 MJ/kg, 135°C flash point, 4.05 mm2/s kinematic viscosity, with density of 0.86 g/ cu cm, and cold filter plugging point as 0.7°C. FTIR, 1H, 13C NMR spectrum confirmed the chemical nature of biodiesel. The quality of biodiesel was almost as per the criterion of ASTM standards, thus, wastewater grown Chlorella sp. can be used as a promising strain for biodiesel production.


Singh D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Geat N.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Rajawat M.V.S.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Mahajan M.M.,National Research Center for Plant Biotechnology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2017

An investigation was carried out to understand the mechanism(s) underlying enhanced Fe or Zn uptake in low Fe–Zn accumulator wheat genotype 4HPYT-414, due to inoculation of siderophore-producing and zinc-solubilizing endophytes—Arthrobacter sulfonivorans DS-68 and Arthrobacter sp. DS-179. Root anatomical features, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), qualitative and quantitative aspects of production of organic acids and sugars in root exudates, and expression of TaZIP genes were analysed to relate to endophyte-mediated higher concentrations of Fe and Zn in the roots and shoots of wheat plants. TEM studies revealed that the endodermis, cortical region, root hair extension, xylem and xylem vessels, pericycle and vascular bundles were more pronounced and thicker in inoculated treatments, as compared to control. The organic acid profile of root exudates revealed five types of organic acids, with citric acid being predominant. Inoculation of A. sulfonivorans and Arthrobacter sp. brought about 5- and eightfold increases in the amounts of acids, respectively, as compared to control, particularly citric acid, succinic acid and acetic acid. Among the four TaZIP genes targeted, expression was achieved only for TaZIP3 and TaZIP7 genes, which showed 1–2 fold increases in the inoculated treatments. The results clearly indicated that the endophyte-mediated overexpression of TaZIP3 and TaZIP7 genes in roots and shoots, and the observed anatomical and exudate changes were acting synergistically in facilitating higher Fe and Zn translocation in roots and shoots. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Singh D.P.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Prabha R.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Prabha R.,Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University | Verma S.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | And 2 more authors.
3 Biotech | Year: 2017

Cell-free extracts of twenty terrestrial cyanobacteria were evaluated for their antioxidant properties in terms of free-radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS) and metal chelating activity and deoxyribose protection. Extract of Anabaena constricta was the most prominent antioxidant agent (IC50 for DPPH activity 0.91 mg ml−1, ABTS 0.23 mg ml−1, deoxyribose protection 0.63 mg ml−1 and Fe+2-ion chelating 0.9 mg ml−1). The extracts of cyanobacterial species contained high quantity of total phenol and total flavonoid that were supposed to impart prominent antioxidant properties. Cyanobacterial species also showed fairly high PAL activity. We reported varied quantities of polyphenolics gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic, vanillic and ferulic acids and flavonoids rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in cyanobacterial extracts. The presence of these polyphenolics was linked with the free radical scavenging, metal chelating and antioxidative damage protecting properties of the organisms. Cyanobacteria are the most feasible, promising and alternative candidates for searching out new chemical leads for industrial applications in pharmaceuticals, neutraceuticals and biomolecules of importance. Presence of biomolecules such as polyphenolics and their connection with the prominent biological functions (e.g., antioxidant properties) make these organisms a potential source of secondary metabolites with predominant biological activities. Additionally, dominant presence of polyphenols as antioxidant agents in cyanobacterial species may reflect their adaptation strategies against abiotic stresses for their ecological success in different habitats. © 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kashyap P.L.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Rai A.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Singh R.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Chakdar H.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | And 3 more authors.
Journal of basic microbiology | Year: 2016

Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus reported for the first time from India was identified through polyphasic taxonomy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus has unique features such as biverticillate penicilli bearing masses of oval to ellipsoidal conidia. The fungus has been characterized for salt tolerance and to understand the relevance of central carbon metabolism in salt stress adaptation. It showed optimal growth at 24 °C and able to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. To understand the mechanism of adaptation to high salinity, activities of the key enzymes regulating glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were investigated under normal (0% NaCl) and saline stress environment (10% NaCl). The results revealed a re-routing of carbon metabolism away from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), served as a cellular stress-resistance mechanism in fungi under saline environment. The detection and significant expression of fungus genes (Hsp98, Hsp60, HTB, and RHO) under saline stress suggest that these halotolerance conferring genes from the fungus could have a role in fungus protection and adaptation under saline environment. Overall, the present findings indicate that the rearrangement of the metabolic fluxes distribution and stress related genes play an important role in cell survival and adaptation under saline environment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Science, ICAR Directorate of Seed Research, Integral University, Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Microbiological research | Year: 2016

Sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a major disease and attempts are being made to develop microbe based technologies for biocontrol of this pathogen. However, the mechanisms of biocontrol are not fully understood and still require indepth study in the backdrop of emerging concepts in biological systems. The present investigation was aimed at deciphering the mechanisms of biocontrol of sheath blight of rice employing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum as model agents for biocontrol. Initially 25, 5 and 5 strains of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum, respectively, were screened for their biocontrol potential. Out of which, six strains with higher value of percent inhibition of fungal mycelium in dual plate assay were selected. The role of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum were investigated in induction and bioaccumulation of natural antioxidants, defence-related biomolecules and other changes in plant which lead not only to growth promotion but also protection from pathogenic stress conditions in rice. The two most promising strains, P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 selected on the basis of in planta evaluation, when applied individually or in combination, significantly enhanced the accumulation of defence-related biomolecules, enzymes and exhibited biocontrol potential against R. solani. A modified/newly developed delivery system was applied for the first time in the experiments involving inoculation of plants with both bioagents, viz. P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501. Results suggested that application of P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 alone or in combination, not only helps in control of the disease but also increases plant growth along with reduction in application of toxic chemical pesticides.


Kashyap P.L.,ICAR Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research IIWBR | Kumar S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research IIWBR | Srivastava A.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms
Environmental Chemistry Letters | Year: 2016

Rapid detection technologies with high sensitivity and selectivity for plant pathogens are essential to prevent disease spread and minimize losses to assure optimal productivity and food security. Traditional laboratory techniques such as microscopy and culture are time-consuming, labour intensive and require complex sample handling. Immunological and molecular techniques have advanced but have some issues related to rapidity, signal strength and instrumentation. The integration of immunological and molecular diagnostics with nanotechnology systems offers an option where all detection steps can be accommodated on a portable miniaturized device for rapid and accurate detection of plant pathogens. The sensitive nature of functionalized nanoparticles can be used to design phytopathogen detection devices with smart sensing capabilities for field use. This review summarizes the current status and future prospects of nanotechnology for detection and diagnosis of plant pathogens. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


PubMed | ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of basic microbiology | Year: 2016

Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus reported for the first time from India was identified through polyphasic taxonomy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus has unique features such as biverticillate penicilli bearing masses of oval to ellipsoidal conidia. The fungus has been characterized for salt tolerance and to understand the relevance of central carbon metabolism in salt stress adaptation. It showed optimal growth at 24C and able to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. To understand the mechanism of adaptation to high salinity, activities of the key enzymes regulating glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were investigated under normal (0% NaCl) and saline stress environment (10% NaCl). The results revealed a re-routing of carbon metabolism away from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), served as a cellular stress-resistance mechanism in fungi under saline environment. The detection and significant expression of fungus genes (Hsp98, Hsp60, HTB, and RHO) under saline stress suggest that these halotolerance conferring genes from the fungus could have a role in fungus protection and adaptation under saline environment. Overall, the present findings indicate that the rearrangement of the metabolic fluxes distribution and stress related genes play an important role in cell survival and adaptation under saline environment.

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