ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects
ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects
Srikanth J.,ICAR Sugarcane Breeding Institute |
Easwaramoorthy S.,ICAR Sugarcane Breeding Institute |
Jalali S.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2016
Insect pests constitute a major biotic stress in sugarcane in India as they attack the crop from the time of planting until almost harvest, inflicting yield and sugar losses. Biological control has always received a prominent position among the pest management tools, facilitated by the unique semi-perennial crop habitat and low pesticide usage. Biocontrol research of the early 1930s and 40s was characterized by surveys focusing on identification and studies on the basic biology of natural enemies. Conservation and re-distribution, and introduction and colonization of predominant parasitoids was practiced very early, and even in the recent past, with remarkable success. Mass multiplication and field evaluation that began in the early decades continue today, as is demonstrated by the use of the most exploited parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis. Several parasitoids and predators of borers and sucking pests were investigated systematically when the need arose. Among entomopathogens, granulosis viruses and fungi received considerable attention; a simple formulation of Beauveria brongniartii reached commercial production for the control of the white grub Holotrichia serrata. In recent years, isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis from sugarcane soil have been examined and a scarabaeid-specific cry gene has been identified. Preliminary studies of kairomonal principles from borers as attractants to the larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes have been carried out. Organizational support to the cause of biological control includes coordinated research efforts from government agencies, production of biocontrol agents by commercial insectaries and promotion of technologies by the sugar industry. In this review, we chronicle the major research findings over the past eight decades, portray an overview of their significance and project the prospects and priorities for biological control research and promotion in the country. © 2016 CAB International.
Prathibha P.S.,ICAR Central Plantation Crops Research Institute |
Subaharan K.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects |
Kumar A.R.V.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2017
White grubs, Leucopholis spp. are subterranean pests of arecanut grown in South India. Grub infestation leads to yellowing, stem tapering, and crown size and yield reduction. Use of chemical insecticide to mage the white grubs gives varying degree of success. Hence an attempt was made to screen newer and safer insecticides. Imidacloprid (LC50 at 120 h = 16.849 ppm on III instar larvae), chlorpyriphos (LC50 = 14.242) and bifenthrin (LC50 = 12.797 ppm) were identified as effective insecticides. Evaluation of these insecticide in the field over two year period indicated the following efficacy in reducing larval population: chlorpyriphos @ 4 kg a.i/ha (83.31%) > bifenthrin @ 4 kg a.i./ha (82.83%) > imidacloprid @ 0.24 kg a.i./ha (75.84%) > bifenthrin @ 2 kg a.i./ ha (74.26%) > chlorpyriphos @ 2 kg a.i./ha (69.15%) > chlorpyriphos @ 1 kg a.i./ha (61.79%) > imidacloprid @ 0.12 kg a.i./ha (56.54%) > bifenthrin @ 1 kg a.i./ha (54.34%) > imidacloprid @ 0.06 kg a.i./ha (41.47%). Bifenthrin in soil persisted for a longer period than chlorpyriphos. On the day of application, 59.46 ppm bifenthrin residue was recovered from soil. On 10th day, it was 7.29 ppm which decreased to 2.59 ppm on 30th day and was beyond detection limit on 65th day. Chlorpyriphos exhibited a rapid degradation in the initial stage; 27.46 ppm residue on the day of application, which further reduced to 0.964 ppm on 10th day, and was below the detection limit on the 30th day. Growth of Trichoderma harzianum was not affected by bifenthrin even up to 40 ppm concentration. However, chlorpyriphos affected the growth of Trichoderma at higher than 5 ppm dose. Similarly, imidacloprid inhibited the colony growth from 2 ppm onwards. Having high lipophylic property and contact toxicity, bifenthrin would be an ideal alternative insecticide to chlorpyriphos for the management of white grubs in palm garden, which is safe and long persisting. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Savitha M.J.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects |
Sriram S.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2017
Induced systemic resistance, one of the mechanisms of biological control is elicited either by oligosaccharides or glycoproteins released from cell wall of fungal bioagents like Trichoderma species. Oligosaccharide elicitors from 10 Trichoderma isolates having biocontrol potential were tested for their ability to elicit ISR in hot pepper against Phytophthora capsici infection. Treatment with elicitors from isolates Th10, Th9, Th33 and Th28 reduced P. capsici infection in hot pepper by 70-80% compared to 100% infection in pathogen inoculated control. Assays of peroxiase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and glucanase revealed that elicitor treatment significantly induced higher enzyme activity in elicitor treated plants compared to control. Induction of more number of isoforms of PO and PPO was also observed. Elicitors from Th10 and Th33 induced two fold increase in PPO and PAL and three-fold increase in PO, while Th28 and Th9 increased PPO and glucanase by two folds. Different enzymes (involved in phenyl propanoid metabolism or hydryolytic enzymes) contributed to ISR in different isolates. © 2017, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.
Ramanujam B.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects |
Sriram S.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects |
Rangeshwaran R.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects |
Basha H.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2015
In the present study, fungal and bacterial antagonists were evaluated against early blight pathogen of tomato, Alternaria solani under in vitro, glasshouse and field conditions. Among the isolates tested, T. harzianum (Th-7) showed significant inhibition of A. solani under in vitro (72.78%) and glasshouse conditions (62.60%). Seedling dip and foliar applications of T. harzianum (Th-7), T. viride (Tv-14) and P. fluorescens (Pf-1) decreased the early blight incidence up to 62% and increased tomato yield up to 37% over control in field trials. © 2015 Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.