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Malathi V.M.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Jalali S.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Mohan M.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Venkatesan T.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Insect Science | Year: 2017

The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the major pests of rice throughout Asia. Extensive use of insecticides for suppressing N. lugens has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance leading to frequent control failures in the field. The aim of the present study was to evaluate resistance in the field populations of N. lugens from major rice growing states of South India to various insecticides. We also determined the activity of detoxifying enzymes (esterases [ESTs], glutathione S-transferases [GSTs], and mixed-function oxidases [MFOs]). Moderate levels of resistance were detected in the field populations to acephate, thiamethoxam and buprofezin (resistance factors 1.05–20.92 fold, 4.52–14.99 fold, and 1.00–18.09 fold, respectively) as compared with susceptible strain while there were low levels of resistance to imidacloprid (resistance factor 1.23–6.70 fold) and complete sensitivity to etofenoprox (resistance factor 1.05–1.66 fold). EST activities in the field populations were 1.06 to 3.09 times higher than the susceptible strain while for GST and MFO the ratios varied from 1.29 to 3.41 and 1.03 to 1.76, respectively. The EST activity was found to be correlated to acephate resistance (r = 0.999, P ≥ 0.001). The high selection pressure of organophosphate, neonicotinoid, and insect growth regulator (IGR) in the field is likely to be contributing for resistance in BPH to multiple insecticides, leading to control failures. The results obtained will be beneficial to IPM recommendations for the use of effective insecticides against BPH. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Gupta A.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Rajeshwari S.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Azevedo C.O.,Federal University of Espirito Santo
Zootaxa | Year: 2017

Megaprosternum Azevedo (Bethylidae: Scleroderminae) is newly recorded from the Oriental region, and M. cleonarovorum Gupta & Azevedo sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Southern India as a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of Cleonaria bicolor Thomson (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on the host plant Ixora coccinea L. (Rubiacae). This is the first ever documentation of the biology of Megaprosternum Azevedo. © 2017 Magnolia Press.

Sindhu T.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Venkatesan T.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Gracy G.R.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Jalali S.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Rai A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Biochemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2017

Insect Ryanodine receptor (RyR) is an intracellular calcium release channels that play a key role in calcium signaling in numerous cell types. Targeting Ryanodine receptor is considered as efficient treatment option for the control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, an important pest of cruciferous crops. The present study was carried out to identify potential RyR modulators through pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening. A total of 23 experimentally proven activators of RyR were used in the development of pharmacophore model. The resulting pharmacophore consisted of one hydrogen bond acceptor site (A), one hydrophobic feature site (H) and three aromatic ring sites (R). The model AHRRR was used as a query to find effective activators through database screening and AHRRR was validated to check its reliability using enrichment calculations. ADME properties were predicted to confirm the safety profile of the identified virtual hits. Furthermore, a structural modeling approach combining computational mutagenesis, induced fit docking, MM/GBSA and DFT calculations was used to evaluate the binding mode and structural basis of the two activators screened from pharmacophore-based virtual screening. Thus, the results could provide more knowledge on the activation of RyR and helpful in the development of more potent insecticides to overcome diamide insecticide resistance. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

David K.J.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Hancock D.L.,The-Edge
Zootaxa | Year: 2017

Gastrozona nigrifemur sp. nov., is described from India. Postabdominal structures of G. fasciventris (both male and female), G. soror (female) and G. Montana (male) are described and illustrated. An updated key to Indian species of Gastrozona is provided. © 2017 Magnolia Press.

PubMed | Bishop Museum, University of Calcutta, ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources and Marine Biology Regional Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2016

The Metrocoris fauna of India is reviewed and five new species are described from India: M. murtiensis Basu, Polhemus and Subramanian sp. nov. belonging to the nigrofasciatus species group, M. dinendrai Basu, Polhemus and Subramanian sp. nov. and M. darjeelingensis Basu, Polhemus and Subramanian sp. nov. of the compar species group, M. deceptor Basu, Polhemus and Subramanian sp. nov. (previously treated as M. quynhi Tran & Zettel in Basu et al., 2015) of the anderseni species group, and M. lavitra Basu, Polhemus, Subramanian and Saha sp. nov., which does not fit well into any currently established species group. The new species proposed are compared to all other known species, and a key to all the species of Indian Metrocoris is provided, accompanied by a table for comparison of key morphological characters, and a map and table of distributional details.

Mruthunjayaswamy P.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Thiruvengadam V.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Sushil Kumar J.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Crop Protection | Year: 2016

Pink mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a destructive pest of agricultural and horticultural crops. Insecticides are the major tool used to control M. hirsutus. The present study was conducted to evaluate resistance to the commonly used insecticides acephate, dichlorvos, imidacloprid and buprofezin in M. hirsutus collected from seven different geographical locations of mulberry and vineyards in India. Detoxifying enzymes, namely esterase, glutathione S transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 (cyt-P450), were quantified in populations. One population from Erode showed a low level of resistance to acephate (resistance ratio [RR] 10.3-fold), one from Salem showed a low level of resistance to dichlorvos (resistance ratio [RR] 13.7-fold), one from Sangli showed a very low level of resistance to imidacloprid (RR 10.2-fold), and one from Chikkaballapur showed a low level of resistance to buprofezin (RR 14.8-fold). Activity ratios for detoxifying enzymes ranged from 1.8- to 4.9-fold for GST, 1.8- to 3.7-fold for esterase and 1.9- to 2.4-fold for cyt-P450. Furthermore, organophosphate resistance and activity of enzymes (esterase, GST and cyt-P450) were positively correlated. To contain the evolution of resistance to M. hirsutus infestation, buprofezin and imidacloprid could be used, supplemented with biointensive integrated management strategies and regular resistance monitoring programs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Gupta A.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Venkatesan T.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | More R.P.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Glyptapanteles Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a cosmopolitan group of hyperdiverse parasitic wasps. The genus remains taxonomically challenging in India due to its highly speciose nature, morphological similarity amongst species and negligible host records. The Indian fauna is one of the most diverse and also the least studied. The present study is based on 60 populations reared from 35 host species, 100+ individual caterpillar rearings (1100 wasp specimens pinned and 2000 in alcohol) and from 12 different geographical locations of the country (11 states and one Union territory) that represent 26 provisional Glyptapanteles species within 8 species-groups. Out of 60 populations, phylogenetic analyses were performed on 38 based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods displayed three and four major discrete Glyptapanteles clades, respectively. In clade A very few Indian species were grouped along with Neotropical and Thailand species. The other clades B and C grouped the majority of the Indian species and showed considerable host specificity in both the trees. All parasitic wasp species were gregarious in nature, except for two populations. Three different sets of data (morphology, host records, and COI) were integrated in order to generate accurate boundaries between species/species-groups. Illustrations of all parasitized caterpillars/cocoons and 42 habitus views of Glyptapanteles spp., distributional information, and GenBank accession numbers, are presented. The present study, perhaps the most comprehensive done to date in India, suggests the presence of several additional Glyptapanteles species, which were previously unrecognized. © 2016 Gupta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Kamalanathan V.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources | Mohanraj P.,ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

Pardoteleia, a monotypic genus was described by Kozlov and Lê (1988). A new species Pardoteleia flava from India is now described and imaged. The hitherto unknown male of this genus is also described and imaged for the first time. Par-doteleia prater, the type species is redescribed and imaged with intraspecific variations in the Indian specimens. © 2016 Magnolia Press.

PubMed | Canadian National Collection of Insects, National Museums of Scotland and ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Type: | Journal: ZooKeys | Year: 2016

The unusual species of Cotesia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with the first tergite narrowing at midlength are reviewed. One new species, Cotesia trabalae sp. n. is described from India and compared with Cotesia pistrinariae (Wilkinson) from Africa, the only other species sharing the same character of all the described species worldwide. The generic placement of these two species, based on molecular and morphological analyses as well as parasitoid biology is discussed.

PubMed | ICAR National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] | Year: 2016

Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32mol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26mol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

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