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Jurgens N.,University of Hamburg | Schmiedel U.,University of Hamburg | Haarmeyer D.H.,University of Hamburg | Haarmeyer D.H.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 19 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

The international, interdisciplinary biodiversity research project BIOTA AFRICA initiated a standardized biodiversity monitoring network along climatic gradients across the African continent. Due to an identified lack of adequate monitoring designs, BIOTA AFRICA developed and implemented the standardized BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories, that meet the following criteria (a) enable long-term monitoring of biodiversity, potential driving factors, and relevant indicators with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, (b) facilitate comparability of data generated within different ecosystems, (c) allow integration of many disciplines, (d) allow spatial up-scaling, and (e) be applicable within a network approach. A BIOTA Observatory encompasses an area of 1 km 2 and is subdivided into 100 1-ha plots. For meeting the needs of sampling of different organism groups, the hectare plot is again subdivided into standardized subplots, whose sizes follow a geometric series. To allow for different sampling intensities but at the same time to characterize the whole square kilometer, the number of hectare plots to be sampled depends on the requirements of the respective discipline. A hierarchical ranking of the hectare plots ensures that all disciplines monitor as many hectare plots jointly as possible. The BIOTA Observatory design assures repeated, multidisciplinary standardized inventories of biodiversity and its environmental drivers, including options for spatial up- and downscaling and different sampling intensities. BIOTA Observatories have been installed along climatic and landscape gradients in Morocco, West Africa, and southern Africa. In regions with varying land use, several BIOTA Observatories are situated close to each other to analyze management effects. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Bentley J.,University of Cape Town | Klaassen E.S.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI | Bergh N.G.,South African National Biodiversity Institute SANBI | Bergh N.G.,University of Cape Town
Taxon | Year: 2015

The small southern African genus Philyrophyllum (Asteraceae) has t raditionally been placed amongst t he basal lineages of tribe Gnaphalieae, close to the Namibian-centred genus Pentatrichia. However, a recent plastid phylogeny placed Philyrophyllum distant from Pentatrichia within the Gnaphalieae crown radiation, a finding that is strongly contradicted by a suite of morphological synapormorphies that are otherwise unvarying within the crown radiation. In the present study, two linked nuclear loci (ITS, ETS) and one plastid region (trnL-trnF) are sequenced to determine the phylogenetic position of Philyrophyllum, with the addition of available plastid psbA-trnH spacer and ndhF sequences for outgroup taxa. Maximum likelihood bootstrap and Bayesian analysis is used to assess support for phylogenetic relationships. Individual plastid and nuclear, as well as combined data, strongly support a close relationship between Philyrophyllum and the African-centred, morphologically diverse genus Anisopappus, currently placed in subtribe Anisopappinae of the anomalous tribal assemblage Athroismeae. Athroismeae is the sister group of Feddeeae and the “Heliantheae tribal alliance”, a large mainly northern hemisphere grouping that is phylogenetically distant from Gnaphalieae. © International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) 2015.


Shukla S.P.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants CIMAP | Khare P.B.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI
Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

This study was undertaken to identify methods of mass multiplication for five ornamental, economically important ferns (Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott., N. cordifolia cv. ''duffii'' (L.) Presl., N. exaltata cv. bostoniensis (L.) Schott., Pteris vittata L., and Cyclosorus dentatus Link.,) and three threatened ferns, namely, Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex. Hook, Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link., and Microsorum punctatum (L.) Schott., through in vitro techniques. Collections were made from different biodiversity zones of India including Northeast Himalayas, Kumaon Himalayas, and Western Ghat and successfully introduced and grown in a fern-house. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. An optimized medium is described for each fern species. Plantlets were also produced from spore culture of Cyathea spinulosa and successfully hardened under fern house conditions. © 2014 Shastri P. Shukla and P. B. Khare.


Shri M.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI | Shri M.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Dave R.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI | Diwedi S.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI | And 8 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

Recent studies have identified rice (Oryza sativa) as a major dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As) and poses a significant human health risk. The predominant model for plant detoxification of heavy metals is complexation of heavy metals with phytochelatins (PCs), synthesized non-translationally by PC synthase (PCS) and compartmentalized in vacuoles. In this study, in order to restrict As in the rice roots as a detoxification mechanism, a transgenic approach has been followed through expression of phytochelatin synthase, CdPCS1, from Ceratophyllum demersum, an aquatic As-accumulator plant. CdPCS1 expressing rice transgenic lines showed marked increase in PCS activity and enhanced synthesis of PCs in comparison to non-transgenic plant. Transgenic lines showed enhanced accumulation of As in root and shoot. This enhanced metal accumulation potential of transgenic lines was positively correlated to the content of PCs, which also increased several-fold higher in transgenic lines. However, all the transgenic lines accumulated significantly lower As in grain and husk in comparison to non-transgenic plant. The higher level of PCs in transgenic plants relative to non-transgenic presumably allowed sequestering and detoxification of higher amounts of As in roots and shoots, thereby restricting its accumulation in grain.


Raj S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI | Kumar S.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI | Verma D.K.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI | Snehi S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2011

Tomato aspermy virus (TAV) was detected in gladiolus by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction. The amplicons of ~650 bp obtained from two gladiolus samples were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 657 nucleotide-containing single open reading frames of the coat protein gene of TAV coding for 218 amino acids. Genomatix analysis of the sequence data revealed 98-99% identities and close phylogenetic relationships with several strains of TAV. The virus isolates therefore were identified as two isolates of TAV. This is the first molecular detection and identification of TAV naturally occurring on gladiolus in India. © 2011 Springer Science & Business Media BV.


Raj S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI | Snehi S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI | Khan M.S.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI | Tiwari A.K.,Sugarcane Research Station | Rao G.P.,Sugarcane Research Station
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2011

A severe mosaic disease of pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) was observed with significant disease incidence in Gopalganj, India, during 2008. Begomovirus was detected from symptomatic leaf samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using coat protein gene-specific primers of a well characterized begomovirus which revealed positive amplification of expected size ~800 bp DNA band. To confirm begomovirus association, the complete DNA-A was amplified using three sets of begomovirus DNA-A primers. The amplicons were cloned, sequenced, and sequence of the complete DNA-A (2757 nt) was determined by combining the sequence data of all amplicons (Accession no. GQ268327). The sequence data showed 99-93% sequence identities and close phylogenetic relationships with isolates of Ageratum enation virus (AgEV). The begomovirus associated with mosaic disease of T. dioica was identified as an isolate of Ageratum enation virus, which is a new record from India. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media B.V.


Gayathri T.,Kerala University | Nair A.S.,Kerala University | Sane V.A.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Banana cannot be preserved for a long time after harvesting due to a short shelf life. Fruit softening is associated with textural changes due to disassembly of the primary cell wall and modification of the structure and composition of various polysaccharides. Cell wall degradation is caused by the action of various cell wall hydrolase enzymes. Polygalacturonase (PG) is the key enzyme involved in this process. The ripening period is different in cultivars maintained under domesticated cultivation in Kerala. PG activity was profiled in eight Musa acuminata cultivars from Kerala and expression analysis of the PG gene was accomplished using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Maximum PG activity was observed in Palayankodan and minimum activity was observed in Kadali. Gene expression analysis showed variation between ethylene treated fruits and controls in Palayankodan, whereas the expression patterns in Kadali were similar. The fruit softening process is cultivar specific. © 2013 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kumar A.,Banaras Hindu University | Dubey N.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Srivastava S.,National Botanical Research Institute NBRI
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Raw materials (roots) of Rauvolfia serpentina were found associated with various storage moulds. During mycological screening, total 887 fungal isolates were recovered and among them Aspergillus flavus exhibited the highest relative density (35.74%). The essential oil (EO) of Ocimum sanctum was isolated through Clevenger's hydro-distillation apparatus and investigated against A. flavus LHPRS7, isolated from raw materials. The GC-MS analysis of EO showed 41 considerable peaks. Eugenol (61.30%) was found as major component followed by β-Caryophyllene (11.89%) and Germacrene D (9.14%). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of O. Sanctum against A. flavus was found at 0.3μlml-1 while aflatoxin B1 production was completely checked at 0.2μlml-1. The O. sanctum EO exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum and also found efficacious in reducing fungal incidence during in vivo study. The EO reduces the number of A. flavus isolates up to 62.94, 67.87 and 74.01% fumigated at concentration 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0μlml-1 respectively. The HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography) analysis of raw materials in in vivo study reveals that alkaloid ajmaline was firmly degraded by fungal contamination while in the samples fumigated with O. sanctum EO, ajmaline was protected from fungal degradation due to antifungal efficacy of EO. The prospects of exploitation of O. sanctum EO as acceptable plant based additive in qualitative as well as quantitative control of biodeterioration of herbal raw materials have been discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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