National Botanical Research Institute

Lucknow, India

National Botanical Research Institute

Lucknow, India

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Chaudhry V.,National Botanical Research Institute | Nautiyal C.S.,National Botanical Research Institute
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

A novel PA Medium (PAM) for efficient screening of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) was developed taking Serratia marcescens NBRI1213 as model organism. The defined National Botanical Research Institute's growth medium (NBRI) supplemented with 0.1% maltose, designed for quantitative estimation of phosphate accumulation was designated as PAM. Our work suggested usage of PAM for efficient qualitative screening and as a microbiological medium for preferential selection of PAOs on Petri-plates. For qualitative screening of PAOs, Toluidine blue-O dye (TBO) was supplemented in PAM, designated as PAM-TBO. Qualitative analysis of phosphate accumulated by various groups correlated well with grouping based upon quantitative analysis of PAOs, effect of carbon, nitrogen, salts, and phosphate accumulation-defective transposon mutants. For significantly increasing sample throughput, efficiency of screening PAOs was further enhanced by adaptation of PAM-TBO assay to microtiter plate based method. It is envisaged that usage of this medium will be salutary for quick screening of PAOs from environment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Pandey V.C.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Singh K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Singh R.P.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Singh B.,National Botanical Research Institute
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

Increasing areas of coal fly ash (FA) deposit pose a serious concern for its safe disposal to maintain the environment quality. Several thousand hectares of land have been occupied for the storage of FA all over the world. FA deposits cause serious environmental pollution through wind erosion and ground water contamination through leaching process. Naturally growing Saccharum munja on the derelict FA lagoons of NTPC Unchahar, India was identified as a native perennial grass in the rehabilitation process. We tested its ecological suitability for the effective restoration of FA lagoons in terms of their abundance and stabilization. The FA contains alkaline pH, and low organic C coupled with toxic metals i.e. Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The concentrations of these metals in different parts of the plant fall in the average range of plants and were found within toxic limits. Natural colonization of S. munja predominate in the areas of FA deposits with fast growth and high biomass which is used by local people for making ropes, baskets, mats, huts, etc. to support their livelihood. These results suggest that S. munja would be potentially useful to rehabilitate the FA dumps more efficiently if it is introduced properly on fresh lagoons to convert barren FA deposits into ecologically and socio-economically productive habitats without any inputs or maintenance. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Pandey V.C.,National Botanical Research Institute | Singh N.,National Botanical Research Institute
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

Fly ash (FA)-a coal combustion residue of thermal power plants has been regarded as a problematic solid waste all over the world. The conventional disposal methods for FA lead to degradation and contamination of the arable land. However, several studies proposed that FA can be used as a soil-additive that may improve physical, chemical and biological properties of the degraded soils and is a source of readily available plant micro- and macro-nutrients. Numerous studies revealed that the lower FA incorporation in soil modifies the physico-chemical, biological and nutritional quality of the soil. However, the higher dosage of FA incorporation results in heavy metal pollution and hinders the microbial activity. Practical value of FA in agriculture as an "eco-friendly and economic" fertilizer or soil amendments can be established after repeated field experiments for each type of soil to confirm its quality and safety. Integrated Organic/Biotechnological approaches should be applied for the reducing toxicity of FA contaminated site near thermal power plants. Overall, study reveals that FA could be effectively used in the barren or sterile soil for improving quality and enhancing fertility. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of FA addition into degraded soils for improving nutritional and physico-chemical properties. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Singh K.P.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Gupta S.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Singh A.K.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Sinha S.,National Botanical Research Institute
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

A magnetic nanocomposite was developed and characterized. Adsorption of crystal violet (CV) dye from water was studied using the nanocomposite. A four-factor central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface modeling (RSM) was employed for maximizing CV removal from aqueous solution by the nanocomposite based on 30 different experimental data obtained in a batch study. Four independent variables, viz. temperature (10-50 °C), pH of solution (2-10), dye concentration (240-400. mg/l), and adsorbent dose (1-5. g/l) were transformed to coded values and a second-order quadratic model was built to predict the responses. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test statistics. Adequacy of the model was tested by the correlation between experimental and predicted values of the response and enumeration of prediction errors. Optimization of the process variables for maximum adsorption of CV by nanocomposite was performed using the quadratic model. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was determined as 81.70. mg/g. The model predicted maximum adsorption of 113.31. mg/g under the optimum conditions of variables (concentration 240. mg/l; temperature 50 °C; pH 8.50; dose 1. g/l), which was very close to the experimental value (111.80. mg/g) determined in batch experiment. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Pandey V.C.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Singh K.,National Botanical Research Institute
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2011

The present article briefly describes the concerns regarding the suitability of Vigna radiata L. for the revegetation of fly ash landfills. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Pandey V.C.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Singh K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Singh J.S.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Kumar A.,National Botanical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) has been propagated as unique and potential tropical plant for augmenting renewable energy sources due to its several merits for which it deserves to be considered as sole candidate in the tangible and intangible benefits of ecology and environment. The species has been advocated for extensive plantations on degraded wasteland throughout the world. Our current knowledge of JCL is inadequate to understand their contribution in societal and environmental benefit. Presently, this species has received much attention because of its immense role in bio-diesel production an eco-friendly fuel, bio-degradable, renewable and non-toxic in nature compared to petro-diesel except few carcinogenic compounds found in oil cake. However, complete information on the multiple roles of JCL for eco-environmental benefits is lacking. Recent reports on various roles of JCL such as effective phytoremediator, carbon sequester, degraded land developer, and soil erosion controller have been discussed in this communication. Additionally, some of its contribution for medicinal and deriving as therapeutic uses are also highlighted. JCL related problems are also discussed. Further there is a controversial debate on its application, extension, and risks, which needs to be exploited well for its beneficial role in tropical environment. These issues are dealt herewith to observe its future scope to mitigate energy crisis, environmental management and sustainable productions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Upadhyay S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Singh P.K.,National Botanical Research Institute
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2011

Cry1Ac δ-endotoxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is used as a bio-pesticide for the control of Helicoverpa armigera. Aminopeptidases N (APN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) play critical roles in its action against H. armigera larvae. The binding of Cry1Ac with brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins was increased with the larval development although the sensitivity of larvae to δ-endotoxins decreased. There was higher expression of ALP than APN in early instar larvae with a ~10-fold higher affinity of Cry1Ac towards ALP than to APN. Binding to a specific receptor is therefore more important for the insecticidal activity rather than overall binding to the BBMV proteins. ALP might play a major role in toxicity as compared to APN. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kumari B.,National Botanical Research Institute | Singh S.N.,National Botanical Research Institute
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2011

Different combinations of four bacterial strains isolated from fly ash were used by us to study their impact on phytoextraction of metals from fly ash by Brassica juncea grown in fly ash amended with farm yard manure (50:50 w/w). Out of 11 bacterial consortia, a combination of two strains i.e. Paenibacillus macerans NBRFT5 + Bacillus pumilus NBRFT9 (C7) inoculated in the rhizosphere was found to enhance Pb accumulation maximally by 278%, Mn by 75%, Zn by 163%, Cr by 226% and Ni by 414% compared to control. It is possible that these bacteria, known for N2 fixation, solubilization of phosphorus and uptake of micronutrient, could promote the plant growth resulting in higher accumulation of metals. However, a combination of four bacteria, namely Micrococcus roseus NBRFT2 + Bacillus endophyticus NBRFT4 + Paenibacillus macerans NBRFT5 + Bacillus pumilus NBRFT9 (C4) was able to increase Cd uptake maximally by 237%. Further, the translocation of metal was invariably more from root to stem than from stem to leaf which was regulated by plant transport mechanism and metal mobility. Bacteria are known to excrete protons, organic acids, enzymes and siderophores to enhance the mobilization of metals which boosted the phytoextraction of metals from fly ash. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Abhilash P.C.,National Botanical Research Institute | Singh N.,National Botanical Research Institute
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2010

Background, aim, and scope Lindane is an organochlorine chemical that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a treatment for head lice and scabies. It is a neurotoxin that interferes with GABA neurotransmitter function. In humans, lindane primarily affects the nervous system, liver, and kidneys and may be a carcinogen and/or endocrine disruptor. Currently, India is the largest consumer and producer of lindane in the world. Due to its continuous use and indiscriminate industrial production, lindanecontaminated soils are widespread in the country. Apart from India, historical lindane production sites were found in Austria, France, Spain, Bulgaria and in China, Turkey, and the former USSR. Before 1984, lindane was also manufactured in the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Yugoslavia, Romania, and Hungary; since then, all production has been stopped in Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, the UK, and the USA. Because of its worldwide use for more than 50 years, lindane-contaminated soils can be found in most countries of the world. Although many countries have restricted or eliminated its usage, obsolete stock piles continue to pose a threat to various ecosystems and human health. Physical, chemical, and biological methods can all be used for the remediation of contaminated sites, but phytoremediation is now recognized as a cost-effective method for the decontamination of soil sites. The present study examines the potential of Withania somnifera Dunal (previously shown to accumulate lindane from contaminated industrial area; Abhilash et al., Chemosphere 72:79-86, 2008) to take up lindane (γ-HCH) and the subsequent plant-mediated dissipation of lindane from an artificially contaminated soil. Materials and methods The study species was grown in four simulated concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20 μg g-1) of lindane. Each treatment was prepared in triplicate. In addition, two control treatments were established: vegetated control (non-contaminated soil planted with W. somnifera) and non-vegetated control [contaminated soil (prepared in above said concentrations) without plants]. Pots were harvested after 21, 50, and 145 days. Plant growth, biomass, chlorophyll, protein, carotenoids content, microbial biomass carbon, lindane concentrations in plant parts, residual lindane concentrations in soil, and percentage lindane dissipation from soil were determined after every harvest. Lindane accumulation potential of W. somnifera per acre was calculated based on the mean dry matter production of the plant multiplied by mean lindane accumulation potential and the number of plants that can be planted per unit area to optimum planting density. Results Plant growth (root length, shoot length, and dry matter production) decreased with increasing lindane concentration. At 145 days, the dry matter production in 5, 10, 15, and 20 μg g-1 of lindane was reduced to 7%, 9%, 11%, and 20% of control plants, respectively. Similarly, there was a significant reduction in chlorophyll contents and soluble proteins in various treatments at each harvest. In contrast, carotenoids content increased with exposure time and lindane treatments. After 145 days, the accumulation of lindane in four spiked concentrations reached up to 8.4, 14.2, 26.8 and 45.0 μg g-1 dry matter, respectively. Regardless of the lindane treatment, maximum accumulation occurred in roots followed by stems and leaves (p<0.01). In contrast, lindane was not detected in the roots of control plants. However, low levels of lindane were detected in shoot and leaf (0.98 and 1.35 μg g-1 dry matter) matrices of control plants. Discussion Although the growth of the plants was affected by lindane, W. somnifera survived in all spiked soils without any visible toxic symptoms. After final harvest, lindane concentrations in the 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-μg g-1 treatments were reduced to 0.83, 2.0, 3.53, and 5.38 μg g-1, respectively. This corresponds to a dissipation of 83%, 80%, 78%, and 73% in the four different lindane treatments. In contrast, a significantly (p<0.001) lower dissipation was observed in non-vegetated controls: 40%, 35%, 32%, and 30%, respectively. These differences in lindane dissipation between vegetated and non-vegetated soils were correlated with their respective microbial biomass carbon, suggesting that W. somnifera assisted in the enhanced dissipation of lindane due to an enhanced rhizospheric microbial activity. Conclusions Based on the present study, it was estimated that W. somnifera can accumulate 764-944 mg of lindane per acre after 145-day cultivation. However, the plantmediated dissipation of lindane (phytostimulation) is the major contribution of this species, leading to the enhanced remediation (rhizoremediation) of contaminated soil (>73%). However, other processes such as volatilization or adsorption cannot be discarded (Kidd et al., Plant Soil 302:233-247, 2008). Recommendations and perspectives W. somnifera can be used for the remediation of lindane contaminated soils. However, suitable agronomic practices are essential for the successful implementation of this venture. Density of planting is a key factor determining the successful growth of plants. It is obvious that plants cannot grow well in contaminated area. Therefore, overcrowding will cause a negative effect on plants growth which will ultimately reduce their remediation potential. A spacing pattern of 1×1 m is suggested so that a maximum of 4,000 plants can be planted per acre (however, more agronomic trials are required to get an optimum planting density). Further, the accumulation and dissipation potential of plants can be enhanced by suitable soil amendments (e.g., addition of organic acids; White et al., Environ Pollut 124:71-80). However, field trials are needed to establish the on-site remediation potential of W. somnifera. Furthermore, additional investigations are needed to understand the catabolic degradation of lindane in W. somnifera. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Niranjan A.,National Botanical Research Institute | Tewari S.K.,National Botanical Research Institute | Lehri A.,National Botanical Research Institute
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2010

Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees) has wide range of medicinal and pharmacological applications. It is used in different traditional systems of medicine and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, nematocidal and various other activities. It is a potent scavenger of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite and nitric oxide. Among several active chemical constituents, andrographolide, neoandrographolide and dehydroandrographolide are most important bioprotectants with wide range of therapeutic applications. Andrographolides significantly inhibit the expression of iNOS, COX-2, mRNA, protein, enzyme activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages that involves in anti-inflammatory activity. Kalmegh extract protects lipids, haemoglobin and red blood cells from lipid peroxidation. It prevents oxidative damage and inhibits binding to toxic metabolites to DNA. Safety evaluation studies indicate that kalmegh is well tolerated at very high dose without any toxic effects.

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