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Emiasegen S.E.,University of Jos | Nimzing L.,University of Jos | Adoga M.P.,Nasarawa State University | Ohagenyi A.Y.,Nasarawa State Hospitals Management Board | Lekan R.,National Blood Transfusion Center
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2011

Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated with spontaneous abortion, hydrops foetalis, intrauterine foetal death, erythema infectiosum (5th disease), aplastic crisis and acute symmetric polyarthropathy. However, data concerning Nigerian patients with B19 infection have not been published yet. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM antibodies, including correlates of infection, among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nigeria. Subsequent to clearance from an ethical committee, blood samples were collected between August-November 2008 from 273 pregnant women between the ages of 15-40 years who have given their informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Recombinant IgG and IgM enzyme linked im-munosorbent assay kits (Demeditec Diagnostics, Germany) were used for the assays. Out of the 273 participants, 111 (40.7%) had either IgG or IgM antibodies. Out of these, 75 (27.5%) had IgG antibodies whereas 36 (13.2%) had IgM antibodies, and those aged 36-40 years had the highest prevalence of IgG antibodies. Significant determinants of infection (p < 0.05) included the receipt of a blood transfusion, occupation and the presence of a large number of children in the household. Our findings have important implications for transfusion and foeto-maternal health policy in Nigeria. Routine screening for B19 IgM antibodies and accompanying clinical management of positive cases should be made mandatory for all Nigerian blood donors and women of childbearing age. Source


Ataallah T.M.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Hanan K.A.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Maysoun K.S.,National Blood Transfusion Center
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among blood donors attending the National Blood Transfusion Center (NBTC) in Baghdad, Iraq from 2006-2009 and to compare the results with previous year's results and results from studies on a normal population, and to identify certain demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and residence of positive cases. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional observational study. Monthly reports from the NBTC during the year 2006-2009 were collected. This study took place at Communicable Disease Control Center (CDC), Baghdad, Iraq in January 2010. Analysis of the reports regarding age, gender, and residence was carried out using Excel 2007. Results: The sample size was 495,648 blood donors. Out of them, only 3258 (0.6%) were positive for hepatitis B and 933 (0.3%) were positive for hepatitis C. The average prevalence of HBsAg was higher in men (0.7%) than women (0.5%) with no statistical significance (p=0.07) while the prevalence of anti-HCV was higher in women (0.4%) than in men (0.2%) with statistical significance (p=0.000). Residence distribution of the positive cases for HbsAg and Anti HCV Ab in both genders was found to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Regarding age distributions, most of the affected donors were between 20-40 years age. Conclusions: The findings indicate that Baghdad is of low endemicity with hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection. Generally, men are affected more than women and urban areas more than rural areas. Further studies are needed to provide more details about the status of HBV and HCV infection in other provinces of Iraq. Results of these studies could be utilized to determine the most feasible and useful approaches for strengthening prevention and control activities. Source


Van Griensven J.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Edwards T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | De Lamballerie X.,Aix - Marseille University | De Lamballerie X.,French Institute of Research for Development | And 27 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND In the wake of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in several African countries, the World Health Organization prioritized the evaluation of treatment with convalescent plasma derived from patients who have recovered from the disease. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of EVD in Guinea. METHODS In this nonrandomized, comparative study, 99 patients of various ages (including pregnant women) with confirmed EVD received two consecutive transfusions of 200 to 250 ml of ABO-compatible convalescent plasma, with each unit of plasma obtained from a separate convalescent donor. The transfusions were initiated on the day of diagnosis or up to 2 days later. The level of neutralizing antibodies against Ebola virus in the plasma was unknown at the time of administration. The control group was 418 patients who had been treated at the same center during the previous 5 months. The primary outcome was the risk of death during the period from 3 to 16 days after diagnosis with adjustments for age and the baseline cycle-threshold value on polymerasechain-reaction assay; patients who had died before day 3 were excluded. The clinically important difference was defined as an absolute reduction in mortality of 20 percentage points in the convalescent-plasma group as compared with the control group. RESULTS A total of 84 patients who were treated with plasma were included in the primary analysis. At baseline, the convalescent-plasma group had slightly higher cycle-threshold values and a shorter duration of symptoms than did the control group, along with a higher frequency of eye redness and difficulty in swallowing. From day 3 to day 16 after diagnosis, the risk of death was 31% in the convalescent-plasma group and 38% in the control group (risk difference, -7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -18 to 4). The difference was reduced after adjustment for age and cycle-threshold value (adjusted risk difference, -3 percentage points; 95% CI, -13 to 8). No serious adverse reactions associated with the use of convalescent plasma were observed. CONCLUSIONS The transfusion of up to 500 ml of convalescent plasma with unknown levels of neutralizing antibodies in 84 patients with confirmed EVD was not associated with a significant improvement in survival. (Funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02342171. Copyright © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Said Z.N.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt | Sayed M.H.E.,Ain Shams University | Salama I.I.,National Research Center of Egypt | Aboel-Magd E.K.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt | And 7 more authors.
World Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2013

AIM: To identify blood donors with occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) to promote safe blood donation. METHODS: Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 3167 blood donors negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab) and human immunodeficiency virus Ab. They were subjected to the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and screening for anti-HBV core antibodies (total) by two different techniques; [Monoliza antibodies to hepatitis B core (Anti-HBc) Plus-Bio-Rad] and (ARC-HBc total-ABBOT). Positive samples were subjected to quantitative detection of antibodies to hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) (ETI-AB-AUK-3, Dia Sorin-Italy). Serum anti-HBs titers > 10 IU/L was considered positive. Quantitative HBV DNA by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (QIAGEN-Germany) with 3.8 IU/mL detection limit was estimated for blood units with negative serum anti-HBs and also for 32 whose anti-HBs serum titers were > 1000 IU/L. Also, 265 recipients were included, 34 of whom were followed up for 3-6 mo. Recipients were investigated for ALT and AST, HBV serological markers: HBsAg (ETI-MAK-4, Dia Sorin-Italy), anti-HBc, quantitative detection of anti-HBs and HBV-DNA. RESULTS: 525/3167 (16.6%) of blood units were positive for total anti-HBc, 64% of those were anti- HBs positive. Confirmation by ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay were carried out for 498/525 anti-HBc positive samples, where 451 (90.6%) confirmed positive. Reactivity for anti-HBc was considered confirmed only if two positive results were obtained for each sample, giving an overall prevalence of 451/3167 (14.2%) for total anti-HBc. HBV DNA was quantified by real time PCR in 52/303 (17.2%) of anti-HBc positive blood donors (viral load range: 5 to 3.5 x 105 IU/mL) with a median of 200 IU/mL (mean: 1.8 x 104 ± 5.1 x 104 IU/mL). Anti- HBc was the only marker in 68.6% of donors. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis for identifying risk factors associated with anti-HBc and HBV-DNA positivity among blood donors showed that age above thirty and marriage were the most significant risk factors for prediction of anti-HBc positivity with AOR 1.8 (1.4-2.4) and 1.4 (1.0-1.9) respectively. Other risk factors as gender, history of blood transfusion, diabetes mellitus, frequent injections, tattooing, previous surgery, hospitalization, Bilharziasis or positive family history of HBV or HCV infections were not found to be associated with positive anti-HBc antibodies. Among anti-HBc positive blood donors, age below thirty was the most significant risk factor for prediction of HBV-DNA positivity with AOR 3.8 (1.8-7.9). According to HBV-DNA concentration, positive samples were divided in two groups; group one with HBV-DNA ≥ 200 IU/mL (n = 27) and group two with HBV-DNA < 200 IU/mL (n = 26). No significant difference was detected between both groups as regards mean age, gender, liver enzymes or HBV markers. Serological profiles of all followed up blood recipients showed that, all were negative for the studied HBV markers. Also, HBV DNA was not detected among studied recipients, none developed post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH) and the clinical outcome was good. CONCLUSION: OBI is prevalent among blood donors. Nucleic acid amplification/HBV anti core screening should be considered for high risk recipients to eliminate risk of unsafe blood donation. © 2013 Baishideng. Source


Hajjej A.,National Blood Transfusion Center | Almawi W.Y.,Arabian Gulf University | Hattab L.,Regional Hospital of Gabes | El-Gaaied A.,Tunis el Manar University | Hmida S.,National Blood Transfusion Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

In view of its distinct geographical location and relatively small area, Tunisia witnessed the presence of many civilizations and ethnic groups throughout history, thereby questioning the origin of present-day Tunisian population. We investigated HLA class I and class II gene profiles in Tunisians, and compared this profile with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Sahara African populations. A total of 376 unrelated Tunisian individuals of both genders were genotyped for HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1), using reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-SSO) method. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by DISPAN software, and correspondence analysis was carried out by VISTA software. One hundred fifty-three HLA alleles were identified in the studied sample, which comprised 41, 50, 40 and 22 alleles at HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, respectively. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A∗02:01 (16.76%), HLAB∗ 44:02/03 (17.82%), HLA-DRB1∗07:01 (19.02%), and HLA-DQB1∗03:01 (17.95%). Fourlocus haplotype analysis identified HLA-A∗02:01-B∗50:01-DRB1∗07:01-DQB1∗02:02 (2.2%) as the common haplotype in Tunisians. Compared to other nearby populations, Tunisians appear to be genetically related to Western Mediterranean population, in particular North Africans and Berbers. In conclusion, HLA genotype results indicate that Tunisians are related to present-day North Africans, Berbers and to Iberians, but not to Eastern Arabs (Palestinians, Jordanians and Lebanese). This suggests that the genetic contribution of Arab invasion of 7th-11th century A.D. had little impact of the North African gene pool. © 2015 Hajjej et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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