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Hajjej A.,National Blood Transfusion Center | Almawi W.Y.,Arabian Gulf University | Hattab L.,Regional Hospital of Gabes | Hmida S.,National Blood Transfusion Center
Immunology Letters | Year: 2017

Despite their importance, anthropological meta-analyses which allow for comprehensive evaluation of the relationships of a given population were rare. This meta-analysis evaluates the origin of Tunisians using polymorphic profile of HLA class I (A, B), and class II (DRB1, DQB1) genes, in historical, social and cultural context, and is the only analysis in the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region. A total of 20 eligible populations were selected from several databases, and included representing 2553 Tunisian individuals, who were compared with Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations. In total, 204 HLA alleles were detected in Tunisians, which comprised 54 HLA-A, 76 HLA-B, 50 DRB1, and 24 DQB1 alleles. The most frequent alleles were A*02:01(24.72%) in Berbers of Zrawa, B*50:01 (13.90.11%) in Tunisian-So, DRB1*07:01 (28.66%) in Ghannouchians, and DQB1*02:01 (42.79%) in Tunisians-H. The A, B, DRB, and DQB1 genotypes of 420 individuals were further subjected to a selection study. Despite the relatively large sample size, the loci depicted non-significant negative Fnd values, an indication of overall trend to balancing selection or gene flow. Except for Berbers of Djerba, dendrograms, correspondence analyses, genetic distances and haplotype analysis demonstrated the close relatedness of Berbers, Southern and Northern Tunisians, and strong relatedness was evident to Western Mediterranean, North African and Iberian populations, but not Sub-Saharans and Eastern Mediterranean populations, including Arabs. Collectively, this suggests that the contribution of Arabs and sub-Saharans to the present Tunisian gene pool is low. In addition, all Mediterranean populations depict a typical Mediterranean substratum, except for Greeks. © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies


Ataallah T.M.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Hanan K.A.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Maysoun K.S.,National Blood Transfusion Center
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among blood donors attending the National Blood Transfusion Center (NBTC) in Baghdad, Iraq from 2006-2009 and to compare the results with previous year's results and results from studies on a normal population, and to identify certain demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and residence of positive cases. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional observational study. Monthly reports from the NBTC during the year 2006-2009 were collected. This study took place at Communicable Disease Control Center (CDC), Baghdad, Iraq in January 2010. Analysis of the reports regarding age, gender, and residence was carried out using Excel 2007. Results: The sample size was 495,648 blood donors. Out of them, only 3258 (0.6%) were positive for hepatitis B and 933 (0.3%) were positive for hepatitis C. The average prevalence of HBsAg was higher in men (0.7%) than women (0.5%) with no statistical significance (p=0.07) while the prevalence of anti-HCV was higher in women (0.4%) than in men (0.2%) with statistical significance (p=0.000). Residence distribution of the positive cases for HbsAg and Anti HCV Ab in both genders was found to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Regarding age distributions, most of the affected donors were between 20-40 years age. Conclusions: The findings indicate that Baghdad is of low endemicity with hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection. Generally, men are affected more than women and urban areas more than rural areas. Further studies are needed to provide more details about the status of HBV and HCV infection in other provinces of Iraq. Results of these studies could be utilized to determine the most feasible and useful approaches for strengthening prevention and control activities.


Van Griensven J.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Edwards T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | De Lamballerie X.,Aix - Marseille University | De Lamballerie X.,French Institute of Research for Development | And 27 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND In the wake of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in several African countries, the World Health Organization prioritized the evaluation of treatment with convalescent plasma derived from patients who have recovered from the disease. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of EVD in Guinea. METHODS In this nonrandomized, comparative study, 99 patients of various ages (including pregnant women) with confirmed EVD received two consecutive transfusions of 200 to 250 ml of ABO-compatible convalescent plasma, with each unit of plasma obtained from a separate convalescent donor. The transfusions were initiated on the day of diagnosis or up to 2 days later. The level of neutralizing antibodies against Ebola virus in the plasma was unknown at the time of administration. The control group was 418 patients who had been treated at the same center during the previous 5 months. The primary outcome was the risk of death during the period from 3 to 16 days after diagnosis with adjustments for age and the baseline cycle-threshold value on polymerasechain-reaction assay; patients who had died before day 3 were excluded. The clinically important difference was defined as an absolute reduction in mortality of 20 percentage points in the convalescent-plasma group as compared with the control group. RESULTS A total of 84 patients who were treated with plasma were included in the primary analysis. At baseline, the convalescent-plasma group had slightly higher cycle-threshold values and a shorter duration of symptoms than did the control group, along with a higher frequency of eye redness and difficulty in swallowing. From day 3 to day 16 after diagnosis, the risk of death was 31% in the convalescent-plasma group and 38% in the control group (risk difference, -7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -18 to 4). The difference was reduced after adjustment for age and cycle-threshold value (adjusted risk difference, -3 percentage points; 95% CI, -13 to 8). No serious adverse reactions associated with the use of convalescent plasma were observed. CONCLUSIONS The transfusion of up to 500 ml of convalescent plasma with unknown levels of neutralizing antibodies in 84 patients with confirmed EVD was not associated with a significant improvement in survival. (Funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02342171. Copyright © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Rerambiah L.K.,National Blood Transfusion Center | Bengone C.,National Blood Transfusion Center | Siawaya J.F.D.,National Blood Transfusion Center | Siawaya J.F.D.,National Diagnostics
Blood Transfusion | Year: 2014

Background. Blood transfusions carry the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. In contrast to the situation in the developed world, there is a limited number of studies examining this problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we aimed to calculate the risks of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from units of blood issued by the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre between 2009 and 2011. Materials and methods. All the donations were tested for infectious diseases and the seroconversion incidence rates of HIV, HBV and HCV were calculated. The residual risk of transfusion-associated transmission for each virus was calculated by multiplying the seroconversion rates by the window period expressed in fractions of a year. Results. The risks of becoming infected with HIV, HCV, and HBV in subjects receiving units of blood from the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre were 64.7, 207.94 and 534.53 per million donations, respectively. Conclusions. This study, which is the first to quantify the true risks of transfusion-transmitted infections in Gabon, reveals and confirms the need to reinforce preventative and screening strategies to improve transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa. © SIMTI Servizi Srl.


Dahourou H.,Regional Blood Transfusion Center | Tapko J.-B.,World Health Organisation | Kienou K.,National Blood Transfusion Center | Nebie K.,National Blood Transfusion Center | Sanou M.,National Blood Transfusion Center
Biologicals | Year: 2010

Burkina Faso is a continental West African country of approximately 16 M people whose transfusion needs were covered by 66,210 blood units collected mostly in 4 regional transfusion centers part of a national network but also from hospital-based smaller blood centers. The first group of blood centers relies almost exclusively on volunteer, non-remunerated, blood donors and only approximately 32.7% of them are repeating donation. In contrast, hospital-based blood centers rely nearly exclusively on family/replacement donors. The general strategy of the national blood transfusion network was to base the system exclusively on volunteer donors, which was nearly accomplished overall and completely at Bobo-Dioulasso, the largest center. However, despite considerable increase in blood collection, the overall blood supply remains low (4.7 units/1000 inhabitants) and worsens during the secondary school recesses since young student blood constitutes the most part of volunteer donors. To overcome such shortages, mobile blood collection sessions are organized in alternate sites such as military barracks or places of worship but with limited success. Another critical issue is that despite considerable efforts and help from community advocates, only 32.7% of volunteers repeat donation limiting the considerably safety advantage of a pool of regular donors. © 2009.


Emiasegen S.E.,University of Jos | Emiasegen S.E.,General Hospital Akwanga | Nimzing L.,University of Jos | Adoga M.P.,Nasarawa State University | And 2 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2011

Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated with spontaneous abortion, hydrops foetalis, intrauterine foetal death, erythema infectiosum (5th disease), aplastic crisis and acute symmetric polyarthropathy. However, data concerning Nigerian patients with B19 infection have not been published yet. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM antibodies, including correlates of infection, among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nigeria. Subsequent to clearance from an ethical committee, blood samples were collected between August-November 2008 from 273 pregnant women between the ages of 15-40 years who have given their informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Recombinant IgG and IgM enzyme linked im-munosorbent assay kits (Demeditec Diagnostics, Germany) were used for the assays. Out of the 273 participants, 111 (40.7%) had either IgG or IgM antibodies. Out of these, 75 (27.5%) had IgG antibodies whereas 36 (13.2%) had IgM antibodies, and those aged 36-40 years had the highest prevalence of IgG antibodies. Significant determinants of infection (p < 0.05) included the receipt of a blood transfusion, occupation and the presence of a large number of children in the household. Our findings have important implications for transfusion and foeto-maternal health policy in Nigeria. Routine screening for B19 IgM antibodies and accompanying clinical management of positive cases should be made mandatory for all Nigerian blood donors and women of childbearing age.


PubMed | Biologicals Quality Control, Institute National Of Transfusion D Sang, Blood Systems Research Institute, National Blood Transfusion Center and 3 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Transfusion | Year: 2015

Knowledge about the viral load (VL) distributions in different stages of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is essential to compare the efficacy of serologic screening and nucleic acid testing (NAT) in preventing transfusion transmission risk. We studied HCV-RNA levels in Egyptian blood donors in the preseroconversion window period (WP) and in later anti-HCV-positive stages of infection.Subsets of individual-donation (ID)-NAT and anti-HCV-yield samples from a screening study among 119,756 donors were tested for VL by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Low viremia levels below the quantification limit of qPCR were determined by probit analysis using the proportion of reactive results on replicate NATs. Poisson distribution statistics were used to estimate transmission risk in different stages of HCV infection based on 50% minimum infectious doses (MID50 ) of 3.2 (1-10) and 316 (100-1000) virions in the absence and presence of anti-HCV, respectively.Rates of total HCV infections and WP-NAT-yield donations in two Egyptian blood centers varied between 2.6% to 4.5% and 1:3100 to 1:9500, respectively. VLs ranged from 82 to 3 10(7) copies/mL in WP and from fewer than 1600 to 1.6 10(6) copies/mL in anti-HCV-positive carrier donations. Only two (1.1%) of 175 donors with probable resolved infection had detectable RNA on replicate testing (estimated VLs of 0.5 and 1.8 copies/mL). This translates to an estimated transmission risk of 0.028% if ID-NAT-nonreactive, anti-HCV-positive donations would be used for RBC transfusions.Almost 99% of anti-HCV-reactive donations without detectable HCV-RNA on initial ID-NAT screening had eradicated the virus from the circulation, while 1% had extremely low VLs and are likely not infectious. The incremental safety offered by serologic testing of ID-NAT-screened blood seems minimal.


Hajjej A.,National Blood Transfusion Center | Almawi W.Y.,Arabian Gulf University | Hattab L.,Regional Hospital of Gabes | El-Gaaied A.,Tunis el Manar University | Hmida S.,National Blood Transfusion Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

In view of its distinct geographical location and relatively small area, Tunisia witnessed the presence of many civilizations and ethnic groups throughout history, thereby questioning the origin of present-day Tunisian population. We investigated HLA class I and class II gene profiles in Tunisians, and compared this profile with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Sahara African populations. A total of 376 unrelated Tunisian individuals of both genders were genotyped for HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1), using reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-SSO) method. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by DISPAN software, and correspondence analysis was carried out by VISTA software. One hundred fifty-three HLA alleles were identified in the studied sample, which comprised 41, 50, 40 and 22 alleles at HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, respectively. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A∗02:01 (16.76%), HLAB∗ 44:02/03 (17.82%), HLA-DRB1∗07:01 (19.02%), and HLA-DQB1∗03:01 (17.95%). Fourlocus haplotype analysis identified HLA-A∗02:01-B∗50:01-DRB1∗07:01-DQB1∗02:02 (2.2%) as the common haplotype in Tunisians. Compared to other nearby populations, Tunisians appear to be genetically related to Western Mediterranean population, in particular North Africans and Berbers. In conclusion, HLA genotype results indicate that Tunisians are related to present-day North Africans, Berbers and to Iberians, but not to Eastern Arabs (Palestinians, Jordanians and Lebanese). This suggests that the genetic contribution of Arab invasion of 7th-11th century A.D. had little impact of the North African gene pool. © 2015 Hajjej et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Tunis el Manar University, Arabian Gulf University, National Blood Transfusion Center and Regional Hospital of Gabes
Type: | Journal: Journal of human genetics | Year: 2016

The south of Tunisia is characterized by marked ethnic diversity, highlighted by the coexistence of native Berbers with Blacks, Jews and Arab-speaking populations. Despite this heterogeneity, genetic anthropology studies investigating the origin of current Southern Tunisians were rarely reported. We examined human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1) gene profiles of 250 unrelated Southern Tunisians, and compared them with those of Arab-speaking communities, along with Mediterranean and sub-Sahara African populations using genetic distances, neighbor-joining dendrograms, correspondence and haplotype analysis. In total, 137 HLA alleles were detected, which comprised 32 HLA-A, 52 HLA-B, 32 DRB1 and 21 DQB1 alleles. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*02:01(18.02%), HLA-B*50:01 (9.11%), HLA-DRB1*07:01 (22.06%) and HLA-DQB1*02:01 (17.21%). All pairs of HLA loci show significant linkage disequilibrium. The four loci depict negative F


Saied D.A.,Cairo University | Kaddah A.M.,Cairo University | Badr Eldin R.M.,Cairo University | Mohaseb S.S.,National Blood Transfusion Center
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Alloimmunization to red blood cells (RBCs) antigens and formation of autoantibodies against RBCs is a frequent complication among immunocompetent transfusion-dependent patients. Autoantibodies can result in clinical hemolysis and difficulty in cross-matching blood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of alloantibodies and autoantibodies in regularly transfused β-thalassemic patients and the factors influencing the development of alloantibodies. Materials and Methods: The clinical and transfusion records of 95 Egyptian β-thalassemic patients, with a mean age of 17.07 years, presenting to the National Blood Transfusion Centre for regular blood transfusion were evaluated for alloimmunization and antibody formation. Results: Alloantibodies were encountered in 27 patients (28.4%). The most frequent alloantibodies encountered were anti-Kell (23.6%) and anti-E (23.6%). Patients with blood group O were the highest in developing antibodies (37.9%). Patients with blood phenotypes R2r Kell negative developed more alloantibodies. Autoantibodies were encountered in only 1 patient. Conclusions: Alloimmunization to RBCs antigens is a frequent finding among Egyptian transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients, with the majority of patients being transfused with blood matched for ABO and D antigens only. Absence of phenotypically matched donors, except for a limited number of patients, may have contributed to this problem. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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