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Isokpehi R.D.,Jackson State University | Mahmud O.,Jackson State University | Mbah A.N.,Jackson State University | Simmons S.S.,Jackson State University | And 25 more authors.
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology | Year: 2011

The draft nuclear genome sequence of the snail-transmitted, dimorphic, parasitic, platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni revealed eight genes encoding proteins that contain the Universal Stress Protein (USP) domain. Schistosoma mansoni is a causative agent of human schistosomiasis, a severe and debilitating Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) of poverty, which is endemic in at least 76 countries. The availability of the genome sequences of Schistosoma species presents opportunities for bioinformatics and genomics analyses of associated gene families that could be targets for understanding schistosomiasis ecology, intervention, prevention and control. Proteins with the USP domain are known to provide bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and plants with the ability to respond to diverse environmental stresses. In this research investigation, the functional annotations of the USP genes and predicted nucleotide and protein sequences were initially verified. Subsequently, sequence clusters and distinctive features of the sequences were determined. A total of twelve ligand binding sites were predicted based on alignment to the ATP-binding universal stress protein from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. In addition, six USP sequences showed the presence of ATP-binding motif residues indicating that they may be regulated by ATP. Public domain gene expression data and RT-PCR assays confirmed that all the S. mansoni USP genes were transcribed in at least one of the developmental life cycle stages of the helminth. Six of these genes were up-regulated in the miracidium, a free-swimming stage that is critical for transmission to the snail intermediate host. It is possible that during the intra-snail stages, S. mansoni gene transcripts for universal stress proteins are low abundant and are induced to perform specialized functions triggered by environmental stressors such as oxidative stress due to hydrogen peroxide that is present in the snail hemocytes. This report serves to catalyze the formation of a network of researchers to understand the function and regulation of the universal stress proteins encoded in genomes of schistosomes and their snail intermediate hosts. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.


Okere A.U.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | Odofin W.T.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | Aladele S.E.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | Fajimi O.,National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Nigeria is a country with diverse landscapes and climatic conditions that result in a corresponding high diversity of biological niches harbouring many plant species. The country is equally endowed with several ecological zones, having on its far south mangrove/swamp while the far north is defined by its almost desert-like climate. Most of the states in this axis are Jigawa, Bornu, Kebbi, Yobe, Sokoto, Katsina and Zamfara. The vegetation cover of these areas is mostly Sudan savannah and Sahel savannah and the desert encroachment in these front line states is so fast and growing at an alarming rate. The resultant effect of this has been mass displacement of inhabitants, farms and their animals thus inflicting hardship and poverty. Meanwhile, studies have shown that few tree crops do relatively well in these areas and one of them identified is Phoenix dactylifera (date palm). Date palm has high nutritive and commercial value and plays an important role in the ecology of various desert and semi-desert environments as well. Date palm, which is an irreplaceable tree in irrigable desert lands, provides protection to under-crops from the harshness of the climate (heat, wind and even cold weather), reduces damage caused by sand storms and wind erosion. It is therefore noted with keen research interest that despite the huge potentials of the date fruit the availability of planting materials has been the major challenge of the cultivation and production of this very important desert crop due to the heterozygous and dioecious nature of the plant. The National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB) - the national focal point on genetic resources conservation and utilization - in one of her recent germplasm exploration and collection exercises in the affected front line states, is collecting several accessions of dates which could be subjected to in vitro propagation techniques using shoot tips and embryos in a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing adenine, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and activated charcoal. The generated plantlets could be subcultured into a liquid multiplication media using the Temporary Immersion Bioreactor systems (TIBs). The resultant products are expected to have a higher multiplication quotient than when the conventional solid multiplication media are used, thereby increasing the availability of planting materials for date palm estate establishment in Northern Nigeria.


Amigun B.,National Biotechnology Development Agency NABDA | Onyia C.,National Biotechnology Development Agency NABDA | Solomon B.O.,National Biotechnology Development Agency NABDA
11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

Waste production is a very important problem in all countries especially in developed countries and Nigeria is no exception. Waste plastics create a very serious environmental challenge because of their huge quantities and their disposal problems, due to their non-biodegradable attributes (or the biodegradation process is very slow). Plastic waste poses a serious environmental problem that is not addressed by recourse to landfill. Open dumping has been the predominant solid waste disposal option in Nigeria. Their destruction by incineration poses serious air pollution problems due to the release of airborne particles and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Only a limited amount of plastics can be recycled, while most plastics could be used, for example in energy production. The management of plastic waste using gasification in fluidized bed technology is a technically feasible option. Apart from eliminating the waste, a chemical recycling is produced during this process, obtaining a gas (syngas) which can be used in different applications such as ethanol through bacteria conversion of the syngas intermediate. Ethanol can be further converted to ethanol gel fuel to substitute the use of paraffin and traditional firewood in rural communities. This is doubly environmentally friendly since it will reduce the volume of plastic waste being disposed of in landfill whilst producing green fuel without generating green house gases. This application could give some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits; thereby improving the socio-economic and political wellbeing of the rural people.


Awaritoma O.,West African Biotechnology Workshop Series | Oyekanmi N.,National Biotechnology Development Agency NABDA | Erah P.O.,University of Benin | Isokpehi R.D.,Jackson State University
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011

Biopharmaceuticals can be described as medicines or medicinal products manufactured through biotechnological processes with links to biological sources especially those of live organisms or their active components. The biopharmaceutical industry is presently experiencing tremendous revenue growth rates projected at more than $167 billion worldwide in 2015. There are more than 500 biopharmaceutical products that have been approved with about 400 presently marketable in the United States and European markets. The full potential of biopharmaceutical, biotechnology, genomic, genetic and biogeneric compounds is best realized in small entrepreneurial firms which have the capacity for creativity, risk, flexibility and iteration that no large biopharmaceutical entity can match. Although there are challenges facing African Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in biopharmaceutical industry, the prospects on the other hand can be lucrative taking into cognizance Africa's ever increasing population and the need for affordable health care. To facilitate the contribution of SMEs in Africa, this article presents a perspective on the prospects of African SMEs in biopharmaceutical innovations such as new products, processes and services. The roles of SMEs in the global biopharmaceutical industry are reviewed. Additionally, selected critical factors to accelerate the contribution of African SMEs in global biopharmaceutical innovation are described. Finally, the prospective areas for biopharmaceutical innovation in Africa include research and development, marketing, workforce development and contract manufacturing. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City.


Abubakar U.S.,National Biotechnology Development Agency NABDA | Yusuf K.M.,National Biotechnology Development Agency NABDA | Abdu G.T.,National Biotechnology Development Agency NABDA | Tyokyaa T.T.,National Biotechnology Development Agency NABDA | And 4 more authors.
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2016

The ancient disease malaria is still severely challenging people's health particularly in African countries. Each year, more than one million people around the globe die due to malaria and more than two billion people in over hundred countries and regions are threatened by the disease. A comprehensive survey was carried out in Kano metropolis in order to document plants used traditionally for the management of malaria. Open-ended informal interviews were administered to the respondents consisting majorly the traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) and herb sellers. Forty (40) species of plants belonging to twenty two (22) families were identified. Herbal remedies were either prepared from dried or freshly collected plants while traditional solvent of choice was water. Decoction and infusion were the main methods of preparation. The study revealed that leaves formed the major part of plants for herbal preparations, followed by stem bark, roots and whole plant. The study has documented different traditional practices used for the treatment of malaria in the study area. Further studies should be undertaken to validate the antimalaria activity of plant species that have not yet been studied and to determine their chemical constituents.


Baba A.A.,University Of Ilorin | Sosanya D.G.,University Of Ilorin | Adekola F.A.,University Of Ilorin | Alabi A.G.F.,Kwara State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Discarded cell phones contribute significantly to the amount of electronic waste generation whilst some of its components are toxic and recoverable. Also, due to the increasing demand for Cu(II) in building/construction, electrical and as chemical tool in freshwater, it is imperative to develop low cost and eco-friendly technique as a substitute for the conventional treatments such as reduction-roasting route at elevated temperatures. In the present study, the hydrometallurgical operations involving leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation for the recovery of Cu(II) by Cyanex®272 in kerosene was examined. Various parameters affecting the extraction of Cu(II) such as pH, extractant concentration and phase ratio were optimized. At optimal conditions, about 96.3 % Cu(II) was extracted into the organic phase by 0.2 mol/L Cyanex®272 at equilibrium pH 5.0 and aqueous to organic phase ratio 1:1. The stripping of the loaded organic was carried out by 0.1 mol/L HCl solution and stripping efficiency of 98 % was obtained. By McCabe Thiele diagram, four stages are required for complete extraction of Cu(II). © School of Engineering, Taylor’s University.


Abdu Yusuf A.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Abdu Yusuf A.,National Biotechnology Development Agency NABDA | Mohamad F.S.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Sufyanu Z.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia
Jurnal Teknologi | Year: 2015

Face recognition continues to be one of the most popular research areas of image processing and computer vision. There are various face databases available to researchers for face detection and recognition. These databases are customized for a particular need of one algorithm. They are range in size, scope, and purpose. Few of these databases from the literature contain face occlusions in several positions of the faces to enable real world applications. In this paper, we present four different occlusion face databases. These are Aleix-Robert (AR), Bosphorus, Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW), and University of Milano Bicocca Database (UMB) face databases. At each section, the key features of the database are presented with the recording conditions, though not all of them are discussed at the same level of details. Detailed comparisons of the databases were made based on controlled and uncontrolled databases, 2D and 3D databases and also their uniqueness. Comparison was also made with other databases out of the categorization mentioned. The databases are useful for performing a rigorous benchmarking of face detection and recognition algorithms. © 2015 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.

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