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Olofinsae S.A.,University of East London | Ibeh B.O.,National Biotechnology Development Agency | Ahluwalia J.,University of East London
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate the effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) on oxygen consumption of differentiated and non-differentiated immune cell lines by retinoic acid and calcitriol treatment which might be useful in subsequent elicitation of immunological action during immunosuppressive states. Methods: PMA and FMLP were used to artificially stimulate reactive oxygen production in cultured promonocytic U937 cell line. Paralleled samples of the cultured cells were separately prepared with calcitriol (1, 25- dihydroxyvitamin D3) and retinoic acid followed by a 72-hour incubation period. The rate of respiratory burst was measured using the Clark oxygen electrode. Results: The average increase in cell concentrations per mL observed was significantly higher in retinoic acid-treated cells (9×106 cells/mL) when compared with calcitriol-treated samples (4×106 cells/mL). There was a marked increase in oxygen consumption of the calcitriol-treated cell lines against the retinoic acid-treated ones. Exposure of differentiated U937 cells to PMA and FMLP increased significantly (P<0.05) in their oxygen consumption when compared with the control. PMA calcitriol-treated cells resulted in 55% oxygen consumption more than the control while FMLP oxygen consumption increased 78% by comparison with the control. Conclusions: The result demonstrated that calcitriol may serve as a physiological promoter of normal differentiation of precursor cells which may exert an immunological action. This effect could elicit a marker potential and increase immune cell activity of the host especially in immunosuppressed diseased states. © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Source

Agarry S.E.,Ladoke Akintola University of Technology | Solomon B.O.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Solomon B.O.,National Biotechnology Development Agency | Layokun S.K.,Obafemi Awolowo University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Bioenergetic analysis of the growth of the binary mixed culture (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescence) on phenol chemostat culture was carried out. The data were checked for consistency using carbon and available electron balances. When more than the minimum number of variables are measured, and measurement errors are taken into account, the results of parameter estimation depend on which of the measured variables are chosen for this purpose. Similar parameter estimates were obtained using Pirt's model based on the Monod equation approach and a modified model based on substrate consumption being rate limiting. Coupled with the covariate adjustment estimation technique, the best estimates were the maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) based on when all the measured data were used. For the aerobic growth of the mixed culture on phenol, η max = 0.396 m e = -0.020 h -1. From the 95% confidence intervals, a maximum of about 38 - 41.3% of the energy contained in phenol is incorporated into the mixed culture biomass. The balance (58.7 - 62%) is evolved as heat with little or no energy needed for the maintenance of organisms. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source

Abioye O.P.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Afolayan E.O.,Minna Federal University Of Technology | Aransiola S.A.,National Biotechnology Development Agency
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2015

A study was designed to assess the efficacy of yeast isolated from spoilt water melon in the biological treatment of pharmaceutical effluent. Two yeast species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. Each of the yeast was inoculated into the effluent and incubated for 15 days. Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows the highest percentage reduction of 52.5, 52.5 and 58.7% for BOD, COD and nitrate respectively of the pharmaceutical effluent and closely followed by the consortium which has 44.5, 44.5 and 72.0% for BOD, COD and nitrate reduction, respectively. The least percentage reduction was displayed by Torulaspora delbrueckii with 38.3, 38.3 and 79.7%. The study revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from spoilt water melon could be used in the biological treatment of pharmaceutical effluent. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Emeka-Nwabunnia I.,Federal University of Technology Owerri | Ibeh B.O.,National Biotechnology Development Agency | Ogbulie T.E.,Federal University of Technology Owerri
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs) as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods: A total of 9 709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 19-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results: IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 2012. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91%) is non-significantly (P>0.1) lower than that of females (4.31%). Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions: The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press. Source

Ibeh B.O.,National Biotechnology Development Agency | Omodamiro O.D.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture | Ibeh U.,HIV AIDS Unit | Habu J.B.,National Biotechnology Development Agency
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2013

Background: Hematological and biochemical abnormalities are among the most common clinicopathological manifestations of HIV patients on ART. Consequently, the development and assessment of indigenous antiretroviral drugs with minimal abnormalities becomes a necessity. The objective of this investigation was to assess potential haematological and biochemical abnormalities that may be associated with the administration of Winniecure ART in HIV patients undergoing treatment in Nigeria. Fifty (50) confirmed HIV positive ART naïve patients aged 36 ± 10 were observed for haematological and biochemical responses for 12 weeks. Haematological responses were assessed thrice at 6 weeks interval using coulter Ac-T differential analyser and biochemical indicators (bilirubin, creatine, urea, amylase, ALT, ALP, AST, albumin) assayed spectrophotometrically. Results: The biochemical parameters ALP (P < 0.05), ALT (P < 0.0001), AST (P < 0.001) and amylase (P < 0.05) slightly increased at the 12§ssup§th§esup§ week, no significant change was observed in plasma creatinine and urea concentrations while albumin levels decreased non-significantly (P > 0.002). Haematological results showed consistent reduction of ESR, eosinophil, absolute and differential lymphocytes, granulocytes and total WBC in the test subjects throughout the assessment period. Conversely, haemoglobin, platelet and PCV increased significantly (P < 0.05). At the 12§ssup§th§esup§ week thrombocytopenia (10.30%) and anaemia (76%) were reduced to 2% and 31% respectively while neutropenia (4.2 to 8%), leucopenia (26.8 to 30%) and lymphopenia (1 to 10%) increased. No cases of neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia and leukocytosis was observed. Conclusion: The drug has a reduced haematological abnormalities and normal kidney function was unaffected though there were signs of possible abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes beyond 12 weeks of treatment. © 2013 Ibeh et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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