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Suasa-Ard W.,National Biological Control Research Center | Suasa-Ard W.,Kasetsart University | Suksen K.,National Biological Control Research Center | Kernasa O.,National Biological Control Research Center | Kernasa O.,Kasetsart University
International Sugar Journal | Year: 2012

The green muscardine, Metarhizium anisopliae is used to control the sugarcane longhorn stem borer, Dorysthenes buqueti, in infested areas of sugarcane fields in Thailand. Fields are treated by dispersing a fresh culture of M. anisopliae colonising cooked rice (2.7×108 spores/g). Single applications of M. anisopliae at the rate of 80 kg/ha were made in three locations at Suphanburi and Kanchanaburi Province in 2008. The effect of green muscardine on the larvae of longhorn borer as well as on sugarcane production was evaluated. The results revealed that, after applying the fungi, the green muscardine killed on average 35.09±8.68% of the borer larvae in all treated plots and 4.49±1.64% in all non-treated plots. The highest average percent of infested larvae was 41.67±36.03% at Rang Sa Ri district, Kanchanaburi Province. The sugarcane production averaged 135.61±4.67 t/ha in treated plots while, in non-treated plots, yields averaged 72.11±10.51 t/ha. These findings indicate that the M. anisopliae was an effective biological control agent in controlling sugarcane longhorn stem borer in Thailand.

Boukaew S.,National Biological Control Research Center | Chuenchit S.,Prince of Songkla University | Petcharat V.,Prince of Songkla University
BioControl | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to screen Streptomyces spp. for biological control of root and stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) and bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), the very destructive diseases of chili pepper in Thailand. About 265 isolates of Streptomyces spp. were tested for their inhibitory effects on S. rolfsii mycelial growth on dual culture plates. Then, 14 promising isolates were further tested for their effects on R. solanacearum growth. Three effective isolates further identified as S. mycarofaciens SS-2-243, S. philanthi RL-1-178 and S. philanthi RM-1-138 were selected and proved to produce both antifungal and antibacterial substances in the culture medium. S. philanthi RM-1-138 strongly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of chili pepper in laboratory tests. Therefore, it was not used in the following studies. When tested in greenhouse conditions, the efficacy of S. philanthi RL-1-178 in suppressing Sclerotium root and stem rot of chili pepper was approximately equal to that of Trichoderma harzianum NR-1-52 or that of carboxin treatment. S. mycarofaciens SS-2-243 and S. philanthi RL-1-178 suppressed Ralstonia wilt of chili pepper in a way that was similar to streptomycin sulfate treatment and it was observed that T. harzianum NR-1-52 had no effect on the bacterial wilt. Under field conditions where the soil was inoculated with two pathogens, the results showed that S. philanthi RL-1-178 could protect the chili pepper plants from S. rolfsii and R. solanacearum infection better than S. mycarofaciens SS-2-243 or T. harzianum NR-1-52. S. philanthi RL-1-178 treatment resulted in 58.75% survival of chili pepper plants and its efficacy was not significantly different from the carboxin-and-streptomycin sulfate treatment. © 2010 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).

Narit T.,Prince of Songkla University | Narit T.,Center for Agricultural Biotechnology PERDO CHE | Anuchit C.,National Biological Control Research Center
Philippine Agricultural Scientist | Year: 2011

Factors affecting the attraction of two fruit fly species [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and B. papayae Drew and Hancock] to the odor of the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae were studied. The experimental factors analyzed were sex (S), mating experience (M), feeding status (F) and host fruit provision (H). For B. cucurbitae, all main factors and their interaction did not affect net attractancy to bacterial odor except for the interaction between M and F where protein-deprived virgin flies gave significantly the lowest percentage net attractancy. In B. papayae, the main effects of S, M and H and the interaction effect of (S×M×F) and (M×F×H) significantly influenced net attractancy. Male flies which have mated and those not given host fruit showed high response to bacterial odor. For the interactive factors, mated male and protein-fed flies had higher net attractancy to bacterial odor compared with the virgin female and protein-fed flies. On the other hand, flies which had mated which were protein-deprived and were not provided with host fruit, gave higher net attractancy compared with virgin flies which were fed with protein and host fruit. B. papayae was more attracted to the bacterial odor than B. cucurbitae.

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