Mexico City, Mexico

The Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México is a public research university in Mexico City, Mexico that is the largest university in Latin America. UNAM was founded, in its modern form, on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra as a liberal alternative to its preceding institution the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico . To this date, the National Autonomous University of Mexico owns and uses for academic activities the old buildings located in downtown Mexico City that once belonged to the old Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico UNAM's autonomy, granted in 1929, has given it the freedom to define its own curriculum and manage its own budget without interference from the government. This has had a profound effect on academic life at the university, which some claim boosts academic freedom and independence.The UNAM generates a number of different publications in diverse areas, such as mathematics, physics and history. It is also the only university in Mexico with Nobel Prize laureates among its alumni: Alfonso García Robles , Octavio Paz , and Mario Molina .Besides being the most recognized university in Latin America, its campus is one of the largest and most artistically detailed. It is a World Heritage site that was designed by some of Mexico's best-known architects of the 20th century. Murals in the main campus were painted by some of the most recognized artists in Mexican history such as Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. The UNAM is widely regarded by many university world rankings as the leading university of the Spanish-speaking world. Wikipedia.

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National Autonomous University of Mexico | Date: 2015-09-25

The present invention provides osteogenic peptides derived from the Cementum-derived attachment protein (HACD1/CAP) and another derived from the Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) and pharmaceutical compositions of these peptides for the prevention and treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis. These peptides increase bone mineral density in an osteoporotic model and without in vivo side effects, demonstrating clinical effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis in vivo as well as bone repair and/or regeneration.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INT-12-2015 | Award Amount: 2.60M | Year: 2016

EULAC Focus addresses the whole set of topics included in the Call. It delivers a significant contribution to the improvement of EUCELAC relations through a better understanding of the three dimensions selected by the call: cultural, scientific and social. The main objective is that of giving focus to these three dimensions of EUCELAC relations, with a view to determining synergies and cross-fertilization, as well as identifying asymmetries in bi-lateral and bi-regional relations. Research is focused on areas crucial to explain the current state of relations between EU and LAC, and will be pursued at two levels: a) research activities; b) strategic set of recommendations. In order to guarantee high impact, the research is pursued in six interdisciplinary WPs, organized matricially. Three are horizontal : Cross-cutting pathways, Towards a common vision for EUCELAC and Dissemination and outreach. The other three are thematic/vertical: Cultural, Scientific and Social Dimension, and not only intersect the horizontal WPs but also interact between them. To achieve the objectives, the project is organized by the multidisciplinary and well balanced consortium of19 members from 15 counties. The consortium represents a unique group of highly competent and experienced institutions, composed specifically for the purpose of this project,comprising, in both regions, Gov Research Agencies, Research institutes, Universities, University Association, and two International European LA Organizations active in analytical and policy oriented research and dissemination. EULAC Focus builds upon the outcomes of prior mapping conducted at the bi-regional level and will facilitate access to end-users, as well as feeding into the work of the EU-LAC Foundation and informing bi-regional networking activities of the JIRI and T-APs work. The number of partners has been carefully defined to ensure project goals and proper diversity, while allowing for efficient project management.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-11-2015 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2016

The business model currently under development for second generation ethanol is a replication of the model used for first generation which is plants with massive annual production capacities. Such high production rates require high capital investment and huge amounts of biomasses (250-350,000 tons per year) concentrated in small radius catchment areas to afford transportation costs (50 km). Under such conditions, opportunities for installing plants in most rural areas in Europe and worldwide are scarce. The objective of the project is to develop an alternative solution for the production of 2G ethanol, competitive at smaller industrial scale and therefore applicable to a large amount of countries, rural areas and feedstocks. The target is to reach technical, environmental and economical viabilities in production units processing at least 30,000 tons equivalent dry biomass per year. This approach will definitely enlarge the scope of biomass feedstocks exploitable for the production of biofuel and create better conditions for the deployment of production sites, to the benefit of rural areas in Europe and worldwide. The main concept underpinning the project relies on a new biomass conversion process able to run all the steps from the pretreatment of the raw material to the enzymatic pre-hydrolysis in one-stage-reactor under mild operating conditions. This new process recently developed to TRL 4, offers the most integrated and compact solution for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of ethanol developed so far, and it will lead to reduced capital and operation expenditures. The new process will be developed to TRL 5 in the project with the goal of achieving satisfactory technical, environmental and economical performances in relevant operation environment. The project will investigate and select business cases for installations of demonstration/first-of-a-kind small-scale industrial plants in different European and Latino American countries.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: ENERGY.2013.10.1.10 | Award Amount: 21.20M | Year: 2014

Concentrating Solar Thermal Energy encompasses Solar Thermal Electricity (STE), Solar Fuels, Solar Process Heat and Solar Desalination that are called to play a major role in attaining energy sustainability in our modern societies due to their unique features: 1) Solar energy offers the highest renewable energy potential to our planet; 2) STE can provide dispatchable power in a technically and economically viable way, by means of thermal energy storage and/or hybridization, e.g. with biomass. However, significant research efforts are needed to achieve this goal. This Integrated Research Programme (IRP) engages all major European research institutes, with relevant and recognized activities on STE and related technologies, in an integrated research structure to successfully accomplish the following general objectives: a) Convert the consortium into a reference institution for concentrating solar energy research in Europe, creating a new entity with effective governance structure; b) Enhance the cooperation between EU research institutions participating in the IRP to create EU added value; c) Synchronize the different national research programs to avoid duplication and to achieve better and faster results; d) Accelerate the transfer of knowledge to industry in order to maintain and strengthen the existing European industrial leadership in STE; e) Expand joint activities among research centres by offering researchers and industry a comprehensive portfolio of research capabilities, bringing added value to innovation and industry-driven technology; f) Establish the European reference association for promoting and coordinating international cooperation in concentrating solar energy research. To that end, this IRP promotes Coordination and Support Actions (CSA) and, in parallel, performs Coordinated Projects (CP) covering the full spectrum of current concentrating solar energy research topics, selected to provide the highest EU added value and filling the gaps among national programs.

Manzanilla L.R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

In this paper, I address the case of a corporate society in Central Mexico. After volcanic eruptions triggered population displacements in the southern Basin of Mexico during the first and fourth centuries A.D., Teotihuacan became a multiethnic settlement. Groups from different backgrounds settled primarily on the periphery of the metropolis; nevertheless, around the core, intermediate elites actively fostered the movement of sumptuary goods and the arrival of workers from diverse homelands for a range of specialized tasks. Some of these skilled craftsmen acquired status and perhaps economic power as a result of the dynamic competition among neighborhoods to display the most lavish sumptuary goods, as well as to manufacture specific symbols of identity that distinguished one neighborhood from another, such as elaborate garments and headdresses. Cotton attire worn by the Teotihuacan elite may have been one of the goods that granted economic importance to neighborhood centers such as Teopancazco, a compound that displayed strong ties to the Gulf Coast where cotton cloth was made. The ruling elite controlled raw materials that came from afar whereas the intermediate elite may have been more active in providing other sumptuary goods: pigments, cosmetics, slate, greenstone, travertine, and foreign pottery. The contrast between the corporate organization at the base and top of Teotihuacan society and the exclusionary organization of the neighborhoods headed by the highly competitive intermediate elite introduced tensions that set the stage for Teotihuacan's collapse.

Fornoni J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Functional Ecology | Year: 2011

1. Plant tolerance to herbivory has been accepted as a mechanism of defense that can be expressed jointly with resistance. Recent advances have partially validated previous theoretical predictions and improved our understanding of tolerance. Here, I highlight the necessity of integrating tolerance into ecological and co-evolutionary theory to better understand the biology of this defensive mechanism. 2.Existing work has been biased toward understanding the adaptive nature and constraints acting on tolerance rather than its ecological implications. Increasing consensus that tolerance may alter the classical antagonistic dynamic between plants and herbivores suggests possible avenues to explore its population and community consequences. 3.In this review, I summarize previous advances in the ecology and evolution of tolerance to herbivory. I also discuss recent evidence that improves our understanding of unresolved issues such as the specificity of tolerance in response to herbivory, its role as an agent of selection on herbivores, and its ecological and evolutionary consequences which include a role of tolerance during biological invasions. 4.Although there is good support for an adaptive role of tolerance in response to herbivory damage, tolerance can itself impose selection on herbivores. Furthermore, tolerance can influence herbivore population dynamics and coexistence, as recent studies show that tolerance responses increase diversity of the associated herbivore communities on individual host plants. 5.Future studies that take into account the role of herbivores on the expression of tolerance will provide novel insight that will help disentangle the mechanisms of tolerance and its ecological and evolutionary implications. © 2010 The Author. Functional Ecology © 2010 British Ecological Society.

Magallon S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Systematic Biology | Year: 2010

Long branches are potentially problematic in molecular dating because they can encompass a vast number of combinations of substitution rate and time. A long branch is suspected to have biased molecular clock estimates of the age of flowering plants (angiosperms) to be much older than their earliest fossils. This study explores the effect of the long branch subtending angiosperms in molecular dating and how different relaxed clocks react to it. Fossil angiosperm relatives, identified through a combined morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis for living and fossil seed plants, were used to break the long angiosperm stem branch. Nucleotide sequences of angiosperm fossil relatives were simulated using a phylogeny and model parameters from living taxa and incorporated in molecular dating. Three relaxed clocks, which implement among-lineage rate heterogeneity differently, were used: penalized likelihood (using 2 different rate smoothing optimization criteria), a Bayesian rate-autocorrelated method, and a Bayesian uncorrelated method. Different clocks provided highly correlated ages across the tree. Breaking the angiosperm stem branch did not result in major age differences, except for a few sensitive nodes. Breaking the angiosperm stem branch resulted in a substantially younger age for crown angiosperms only with 1 of the 4 methods, but, nevertheless, the obtained age is considerably older than the oldest angiosperm fossils. The origin of crown angiosperms is estimated between the Upper Triassic and the early Permian. The difficulty in estimating crown angiosperm age probably lies in a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic complicating factors, including substantial molecular rate heterogeneity among lineages and through time. A more adequate molecular dating approach might combine moderate background rate heterogeneity with large changes in rate at particular points in the tree. © The Author(s) 2010.

Olson M.E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

From an adaptation perspective, unoccupied patches of morphological space are inferred to be empty because they are of low fitness and selected against. These inferences hinge on venturesome assumptions, because emptiness is explained by low fitness and low fitness is inferred from emptiness. Moreover, non-adaptive factors, such as developmental constraint, could also plausibly account for empty morphospace. In response, biologists increasingly study ontogeny to test the assumption that unobserved phenotypes could be produced if selection were to favor them; finding that empty space morphologies can be readily produced in development helps reject constraint and lends support to adaptive hypotheses. This developmental approach to adaptation calls on manifold techniques, including embryology, artificial selection and comparative methods. Belying their diversity, all of these methods examine the causes of empty morphospace and mark a return of development, long excluded from traditional evolutionary biology, to adaptationist practice. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

A cladistic biogeographical analysis was undertaken to identify the main events in the biotic diversification of the terrestrial Neotropical biota. For the 36 animal and plant taxa analysed, a component × area matrix was constructed, associating geographical data only with informative nodes, and it was analysed under implied weights using the software TNT. The general area cladogram obtained shows that the Neotropical region constitutes a monophyletic unit, with a first split separating the Antilles and a second one dividing the continental areas into a north-western and a south-eastern component. Within the north-western component the areas split following the sequence northern Amazonia, south-western Amazonia, north-western South America, and Mesoamerica. Within the south-eastern component the areas split following the sequence south-eastern Amazonia, Chaco, and Parana. The three main components are treated as subregions: Antillean, Amazonian (northern Amazonian, south-western Amazonian, Mesoamerican, and north-western South American dominions), and Chacoan (south-eastern Amazonian, Chacoan, and Parana dominions). Dispersal and vicariant events postulated to explain these pattens might have occurred during the Cretaceous, when the Caribbean plate collided with the Americas, a combination of eustatic sea-level changes and tectonic deformations of the continental platform exposed large parts of South America to episodes of marine transgressions, and the Andean uplift reconfigured the Amazonian area. Tertiary and Quaternary events are assumed to have later induced the diversification within these large biogeographical units. © The Willi Hennig Society 2013.

Bietenholz W.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Physics Reports | Year: 2011

This is an introductory review about the ongoing search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultrahigh energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors γ~O(1011). For heavier nuclei, the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous γ-factors-far beyond accelerator tests-is a central issue.Next, we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent "Maximal Attainable Velocities". We discuss their effect in decays, Čerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays.We also review the search for LIV in cosmic γ-rays. For multi-TeV γ-rays, we encounter another possible puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not that far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable nonlinear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically.An Appendix is devoted to the recent results by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, in particular the hypothesis that nearby Active Galactic Nuclei-or objects next to them-could be the UHECR sources. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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