National Autonomous University of Honduras

www.unah.edu.hn
Tegucigalpa, Honduras

The National Autonomous University of Honduras is the national public university of Honduras. It was founded in 1847 and has many campuses throughout the country. Wikipedia.


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Puertas E.B.,Pan American Health Organization | Rivera T.Y.,National Autonomous University of Honduras
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2016

Objective. To 1) describe patterns of specialty choice; 2) investigate relationships between career selection and selected demographic indicators; and 3) identify salary perception, factors that influence career choice in primary care, and factors that influence desired location of future medical practice. Methods. The study used a mixed-methods approach that included a cross-sectional questionnaire survey applied to 234 last-year medical students in Honduras (September 2014), and semi-structured interviews with eight key informants (October 2014). Statistical analysis included chi-square and factor analysis. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine significance. Results. In the qualitative analysis, several codes were associated with each other, and five major themes emerged. Primary care careers were the preferred choice for 8.1% of students, who preferred urban settings for future practice location. The perceived salary of specialties other than primary care was significantly higher than those of general practitioners, family practitioners, and pediatricians (P < 0.001). Participants considered "making a difference," income, teaching, prestige, and challenging work the most important factors influencing career choice. Practice in ambulatory settings was significantly associated with a preference for primary care specialties (P = < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis found that factors related to patient-based care were statistically significant for selecting primary care (P = 0.006). The qualitative analysis further endorsed the survey findings, identifying additional factors that influence career choice (future work option; availability of residency positions; and social factors, including violence). Rationales behind preference of a specialty appeared to be based on a combination of ambition and prestige, and on personal and altruistic considerations. Conclusions. Most factors that influence primary care career choice are similar to those found in the literature. There are several factors distinctive to medical students in Honduras-most of them barriers to primary care career choice.


Garrido-Vega P.,University of Seville | Ortega Jimenez C.H.,National Autonomous University of Honduras | De Los Rios J.L.D.P.,University of Seville | Morita M.,Gakushuin University
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2015

Many industries face open, global markets with requirements for rapid response and low costs. Given the major role that technology plays in business competitiveness, proper technology management (T) in combination with a good production strategy (S), is important to address current challenges. This paper analyzes the nature of T & S implementation in different industrial contexts to examine whether there are differences in how T & S are implemented in different sectors, whether implementation is linked to performance, and whether contextual factors explain the differences. A database from the High Performance Manufacturing Project is used to test the research questions based on a survey of 267 plants across nine countries in three different industrial contexts (machinery, electronics and auto suppliers). The findings show some differences between the T and S practice modes in the three industries. T and S implementation is observed to be related to performance, but not in the same way. Three of the eight contextual factors are found to differ in the three sectors, which may explain the differences found in T and S implementation. The results imply that plants should consider the joint implementation of T and S as their interdependencies may affect performance, outweighing the possible differences between industries in which plants operate. However, when implementing a specific technology practice, not all plants necessarily consider the same production strategy practices across industries. Likewise, when adopting a certain production strategy, it is not necessarily influenced by the same technology practices across industries. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Garcia-Urquia E.,Uppsala University | Garcia-Urquia E.,National Autonomous University of Honduras | Axelsson K.,Uppsala University
Natural Hazards | Year: 2014

The capital city of Honduras, Tegucigalpa, suffers from the occurrence of destructive landslides on a yearly basis. During the rainy season, damages to infrastructure as well as injuries, casualties and homeless individuals resulting from landslides are reported in the press. This paper presents the development of a database for rainfall-induced landslides for the period 1980-2005, based on the news reported by two local newspapers. The editions comprehended during the study period have been scrutinized, and articles focusing on landslides, tropical storms, hurricanes, floods and vulnerability of the city have been collected. The interpretation of these archives has allowed the compilation of valuable data of approximately 400 landslides. The analyses of monthly and annual precipitation during the study period show how extreme rainfall events like Hurricane Mitch in October of 1998 have significantly contributed to the initiation of landslides. In addition, the assessment of the slums and neighborhoods affected by landslides during the study period reveals an evident link between the social and physical vulnerability of Tegucigalpa. In order to estimate the reliability of this press-based database, the set of landslides that have been reported as a result of Hurricane Mitch in the press archives has been compared with two inventories based on the interpretation of aerial photographs taken in 1999 and 2001. It is shown that the analysis of the landslide damage left after the hurricane can be enriched with the detailed temporal data provided in the archives and the precise location of these events determined by the aerial photographs. Despite the difficulties faced in the compilation of this database, a good comprehension of the temporal and spatial distribution of landslides in Tegucigalpa has been achieved. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Galindo F.,National Autonomous University of Honduras
Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE 35th Central American and Panama Convention, CONCAPAN 2015 | Year: 2015

Currently, the electrical industry has focused its efforts on matters of electrical safety. Industrial safety statistics show that the second cause of death and injuries after electrocution is the arc flash phenomenon. Arc flash is a phenomenon that can be voluntarily or involuntarily triggered, which results in a sudden release of energy, due to a sudden expansion of the air in the facility. During the energy release, temperatures of up to 35000 °F can be reached. This potential risk, regarding industrial electrical safety, is addressed and delimited by entities such as OSHA, NFPA and IEEE. The deep study of (electrical) arc flash is a special topic in the electrical engineering field, which requires a complete analysis of grounding systems, short circuit and protection coordination studies, among others. The article is not intended to be a deep analysis guide, the purpose is to generate a map, which allows you to view the necessary steps to conduct a study to distinguish the practical differences between the application of the rules, list techniques/procedures to mitigate arc energy electric and briefly explain the concept of energy reduction depending on the duration of the failure. © 2015 IEEE.


Meza-Fajardo K.C.,National Autonomous University of Honduras | Papageorgiou A.S.,University of Patras
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2016

By exploiting the capability of identifying and extracting surface waves existing in a seismic signal, we can proceed to estimate the angular displacement (rotation about the horizontal axis normal to the direction of propagation of the wave; rocking) associated with Rayleigh waves as well as the angular displacement (rotation about the vertical axis; torsion) associated with Love waves.For a harmonic Rayleigh (Love) wave, rocking (torsion) would be proportional to the harmonic vertical (transverse horizontal) velocity component and inversely proportional to the phase velocity corresponding to the particular frequency of the harmonic wave (a fact that was originally exploited by Newmark (1969) [15] to estimate torsional excitation). Evidently, a reliable estimate of the phase velocity (as a function of frequency) is necessary. As pointed out by Stockwell (2007) [17], because of its absolutely referenced phase information, the S-Transform can be employed in a cross-spectrum analysis in a local manner. Following this suggestion a very reliable estimate of the phase velocity may be obtained from the recordings at two nearby stations, after the dispersed waves have been identified and extracted. Synthesis of the abovementioned harmonic components can provide a reliable estimate of the rocking (torsional) motion induced by an (extracted) Rayleigh (Love) wave.We apply the proposed angular displacement estimation procedure for two well recorded data sets: (1) the strong motion data generated by an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake and recorded over the Western Coastal Plain (WCP) of Taiwan, and (2) the strong motion data generated by the 2010 Darfield, New Zealand earthquake and recorded over the Canterbury basin. The former data set is dominated by basin-induced Rayleigh waves while the latter contains primarily Love waves. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Bergen D.C.,Rush University | Beghi E.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Medina M.T.,National Autonomous University of Honduras
Epilepsia | Year: 2012

The World Health Organization is currently revising the International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A Neurology Task Force Advisory Group [TAG] has been charged with producing a revision that reflects scientific advances and new concepts of pathophysiology since 1992. The ICD codes are used globally to report mortality and morbidity statistics, and they play a vital role in health care planning, training, and allocation of health care resources in many countries. Although used by physicians and hospitals at all levels, the primary users of the ICD codes are primary health care providers, which, particularly in low income countries, include nurses, clinical assistants, and health officers. The TAG, which consists of representatives of major international subspecialty groups such as the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), has published draft codes that are available online for public comment. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.


Sanchez A.L.,Brock University | Gabrie J.A.,Brock University | Usuanlele M.-T.,Brock University | Rueda M.M.,National Autonomous University of Honduras | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background:Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health.Objectives:To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children.Methodology:A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively.Results:Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7-14 years, mean 9.76±1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7-10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p<0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ.Conclusions:STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite STH infections in undermining children's nutritional status warrants more research. © 2013 Sanchez et al.


Garcia-Urquia E.,Uppsala University | Garcia-Urquia E.,National Autonomous University of Honduras | Axelsson K.,Uppsala University
Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography | Year: 2015

The occurrence of landslides on 134 days between 1980 and 2005 in Tegucigalpa, Honduras has been analyzed in order to determine the contribution of triggering and antecedent rainfall. For each of the 6344 days in the study period, the antecedent rainfall for 19 durations ranging between 1 and 60 days has been determined and the corresponding return period has been calculated using the Gumbel extreme value distribution. The critical rainfall intensity for every landslide day, denoting the antecedent rainfall amount yielding the highest return period divided by its antecedent duration, has been used for the construction of four rainfall thresholds with durations of 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. The accuracy of each threshold in discriminating between landside and non-landslide days is determined by comparing the antecedent rainfall amounts of each day in the study period with the threshold's rainfall requirements. When threshold lines are allowed to underlie 15%, 50% and 85% of all landslide days, the best performance in the receiver operating characteristic space is achieved with the 7-day threshold. To improve the threshold performance, landslide days whose triggering rainfall has higher return periods than their corresponding antecedent rainfall amounts are represented in the line x=0.1 of the critical rainfall intensity-antecedent duration plot. Furthermore, a critical region where minimum triggering and antecedent rainfall amounts are necessary for landslide occurrence has been established to reduce the number of false alarms. Nonetheless, the threshold's low rainfall requirements suggest that human intervention has significantly predisposed Tegucigalpa's slopes to failure. © 2015 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.


Meza-Fajardo K.C.,National Autonomous University of Honduras | Papageorgiou A.S.,University of Patras
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2010

The multi-axial perfectly matched layer (M-PML) is a material boundary condition for wave propagation problems in unbounded domains. It is obtained by extending the formulation of the split-field perfectly matched layer to a more general absorptive medium, for which damping profiles are specified along all dimensions of the problem. Under the hypothesis of small damping, it has been demonstrated that the stability of the system of partial differential equations of the M-PML can be related to the ratio of the damping profiles, and stable M-PML terminations for isotropic and orthotropic elastic media have been constructed. In the present work, we use the Routh-Horwitz determinants to demonstrate that the conclusions regarding the stability of M-PML for isotropic media for small damping are in fact valid for the more general case of damping coefficients of any (positive) value. The effectiveness of the M-PML is demonstrated by constructing stable terminations for the abovementioned media. The stability analysis is presented for 2-D in-plane (P-SV) wave propagation in elastic isotropic continua. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Meza-Fajardo K.C.,National Autonomous University of Honduras | Papageorgiou A.S.,University of Patras
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2012

The multiaxial perfectly matched layer (M-PML) is a stable and effective nonreflecting boundary condition for many problems in computational seismology. As in the case of the classical perfectly matched layer when the system of M-PML equations is discretized, the absorbing layer is no longer perfectly matched, and a small spurious numerical reflection manifests itself at the interface between the physical domain and the M-PML. More reflections originate at the rigid outer boundary of the M-PML, where waves that are not completely damped out bounce back and return to the physical domain. In this work we present a plane-wave analysis to demonstrate that the M-PML is perfectly matched in the case of the continuum on the condition that the damping profile is zero at the interface between the physical domain and the M-PML. We also performed a quantitative assessment of the numerical reflection introduced by the discrete M-PML when the latter is implemented to truncate a computational domain over which the elastodynamic wave equation is discretized using the spectral element method. By means of numerical experiments, we show that such numerical reflection depends on the actual M-PML width, the damping profiles, and the wavelength, and it does not decrease indefinitely when damping is increased. The effectiveness of the M-PML to reduce reflections is illustrated with comparisons with well-known analytical solutions.

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