Han S.-H.,Korea forest Research Institute |
Kim D.-H.,Korea forest Research Institute |
Ku J.-J.,National Arboretum |
Byun J.K.,Korea forest Research Institute |
Lee J.C.,Korea forest Research Institute
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology
The objective of our study was to investigate the major reasons for the different growth and visible injury on the needles of black pine growing in Ulsan and Yeocheon industrial complex areas, South Korea. After 12 years of growth, we collected climatic and air pollutant data, and analyzed soil properties and the physiological characteristics of black pine needles. Annual and minimum temperatures in Ulsan were higher than those in Yeocheon from 1996 to 2008. Ozone (O3) was the pollutant in greatest concentration in Yeocheon, and whereas the SO2 concentration in most areas decreased gradually during the whole period of growth, SO2 concentration in Yeocheon has increased continuously since 1999, where it was the highest out of four areas since 2005. Total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity in Yeocheon soil were significantly lower than those of Ulsan. The average growth of black pine in Yeocheon was significantly smaller than that in Ulsan, and the growth of damaged trees represented a significant difference between the two sites. Photosynthetic pigment and malondialdehyde content and antioxidative enzyme activity in the current needles of black pine in Yeocheon were not significantly different between damaged and healthy trees, but in 1-year-old needles, there were significant differences between damaged and healthy trees. In conclusion, needle damage in Yeocheon black pine can be considered the result of long-term exposure to oxidative stress by such as O3 or SO2, rather than a difference in climatic condition or soil properties, and the additional expense of photosynthate needed to overcome damage or alleviate oxidative stress may cause growth retardation. © The Ecological Society of Korea. Source
(Reuters) - The second eaglet from a pair of bald eagles known as "Mr President" and "the First Lady" emerged from its shell on Sunday at Washington's National Arboretum. The latest edition was seen on an "eagle cam" that has been providing live footage of the first bald eagles to nest since 1947 in the Arboretum, a park-like conservatory in northeast Washington. The video from the American Eagle Foundation shows the parents, and two fluffy eaglets in the nest. The first eaglet hatched on Friday. "Things are going to get a lot more interesting with four in the D.C. Eagle Cam nest! Mr. President and The First Lady are going to have their hands full!" the American Eagle Foundation, a conservation group dedicated to protecting bald eagles, wrote on its Facebook page. The first egg was laid on Feb. 10 and the other on Feb. 14. The pair built their nest in a tulip poplar tree in 2015. The federally protected bird, or Haliaeetus leucocephalus, is featured on currency and in the presidential seal, and was adopted as the national U.S. bird symbol in 1782. The bald eagle almost disappeared from the United States decades ago, but habitat protection and the banning of the pesticide DDT led to its recovery. The bird was removed from the federal endangered species list in 2007.
What do Kentucky and South Korea have in common? Tree hugging world records, for one thing! South Korea is the current Guinness World Record holder for treehugging. On 21 March 2015, 1200 people gathered at the National Arboretum in South Korea to hug trees and qualify for as title-holder for the largest tree hug. But as soon as the documentation is submitted and approved, Kentucky expects to take over the honor. At the Bernheim Big Tree Hug Challenge, an event organized by the Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest, 1416 people took their assigned places to hug a tree while the official count proceeded. According to the invitation to participate "practice tree hug stations" were "set up throughout the region in advance of the event." In addition to getting their name into the Guinness World Record book, the organizers hope to draw attention to tree species under threat. The Bernheim Arboretum currently hosts a traveling exhibit of Vanishing Acts: Trees Under Threat, an installation created by the Global Trees Campaign in collaboration with The Morton Arboretum to highlight the pressures on the natural diversity of trees.
News Article | February 17, 2016
This March, live-streaming, high-definition cameras will offer a rare peek into the hatching of a pair of bald eagles’ eggs. Eager spectators from around the world can watch the nest of bald eagles “Mr. President” and “The First Lady,” a pair nesting in the U.S. National Arboretum in Washington. Nonprofit group American Eagle Foundation partnered with USNA, which has been keeping a close eye on the pair since they arrived in 2014, to offer the eagle nest viewing experience on Eagles.org or DCEagleCam.org. The eagles performed winter-time “nestorations” or the act of fortifying their home with sticks and making it conducive for their forthcoming family life. The first egg was laid Feb. 10, with a second one coming shortly after on Valentine’s Day. The eggs are expected to hatch by mid-March after a 35-day incubation period – something that eagle nest cams, a novel form of “inspirational online entertainment,” aim to bring to viewers worldwide. The popular eagle pair chose a tulip poplar tree in the National Arboretum’s azaleas last October 2014, the first pair to nest in the area since 1947. They managed to raise a healthy eaglet during spring and summer last year. The two HD video cams are positioned at the nest tree top, offering direct glimpse into the nest. Experts from the AEF and a number of tree climbers installed the equipment in and around the nesting location after the pair left for their yearly migration last August. The control box of the cameras is positioned around 200 feet from the tree base, enabled by half a mile of fiber optic cable. A large solar array designed by Alfred State College staff and students powers the whole system. Julia Cecere of AEF said it was quite a risk to spearhead such project when bald eagles are not always guaranteed to return to their first-year nests. "It was a happy day for everyone when both eagles were spotted back on the nest this past October,” she recalls. A multi-agency effort will help minimize disturbance to the bald eagles and will assess environmental contaminants present in their nests. The eaglets will also undergo blood testings and be marked for identification. Vouching for the growing popularity of eagle nest cams, webcams are also pointed at two mated pairs in East Tennessee, particularly in Bluff City and Johnson City. Bald eagles are birds of prey reusing the same nest for a couple of years. They build upon such existing homes every breeding season and produce a massive residence that can weigh over a ton. In 2007, these fascinating creatures were taken off the endangered species list and has continued to soar with greater numbers ever since. In New Jersey alone, volunteers recorded 191 nest sites during the season, 150 of which had eggs and thus deemed active.
News Article | March 21, 2016
Millions watched in awe early Sunday when a second bald eagle hatched live on the Washington, D.C., Eagle Nest Cam at the National Arboretum. DC3, the second healthy eaglet of Mr. President and The First Lady, came to life at around 3 in the morning — more than 12 hours earlier than anticipated — high in a tulip poplar tree, wobbly-headed and sheathed in fuzzy gray downy feathers. It joined its older sibling DC2, which hatched last Friday. The eagle cam has received phenomenal public response since the website launch on Feb. 15 — since starting, the live cams have been viewed more than 7 million times. The official hashtag #dceaglecam also trended all over the World Wide Web. Twitter went abuzz with congratulations, with personalities such as Jill Biden, the vice president's wife, tweeting: "Congratulations to 'Mr. President' and 'The First Lady' on the arrival of two eaglets!" Some even took it as a sign of spring's arrival. Nonprofit group American Eagle Foundation Founder and President Al Cecere highlighted the unifying purpose of the live hatching caught by the eagle cam. "[I]t seems that citizens across America have momentarily put their political differences and disagreements aside to share and enjoy together the special importance, wonder, and meaning of their symbolic National Bird," Cecere says. Wildlife biologist Daniel Rauch of the Department of Energy and Environment reported midmorning of Sunday that DC3 had already eaten and was recovering from its premature hatching. Both baby birds are not expected to leave the popular nest until 12 or 13 weeks of age. Their gender, too, remains unknown. In the next 12 weeks they will slowly transform into full-fledged young eagles with pure brown plumage. While still dependent on their parents, they will start using their natural skills in self-feeding and "wingersizing," or learning how to use their wings. AEF, in partnership with the National Arboretum, has been keeping a close eye on the bald eagle couple since they arrived in 2014, providing live nest viewing on Eagles.org or DCEagleCam.org. The special moments include the time the eagles undertook winter-time "nestorations" and their first laying of an egg on Feb. 10. The well-loved eagle pair is the first to nest in the area since 1947. Bald eagles were removed from the endangered list in 2007 and have continued to improve in numbers since then. Birds of prey that reuse the same nest for a few years, they build upon their existing homes each breeding season and create a massive shelter that can reach more than a ton in weight. The project partners are hopeful that the two new bald eagles will fledge their nest in the summer, although it should be noted that this is a wild nest — factors such as sibling rivalry, natural events and predation could affect the family and the quality of viewing via live cams.