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News Article | April 23, 2017

Via the live-streaming cameras on, it became apparent to worldwide viewers that DC4 was in trouble and distressed, and that a human-coordinated rescue could significantly decrease the chance of serious injury to the eaglet's leg. The non-profit American Eagle Foundation (AEF) and the U.S. National Arboretum immediately cooperated with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Ex-Cel Tree Experts to plan the removal of the eaglet from the nest. "Typically when something goes awry in a wild eagle nest, we don't even know about it and nature simply takes its course," says AEF President Al Cecere. "In this case, however, we could all clearly see how much the eaglet was struggling and how human intervention might make the difference between life and death. We had the power in our hands to help, so that's what we did." After being retrieved and lowered from the tree by professional arborists Matt Morrison & Marty Levine, the eaglet was initially assessed on the ground by US Fish & Wildlife Service biologist Craig Koppie (also an experienced tree climber). It then received further examination by veterinarian Samantha Sander at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore, who truly gave the eaglet the "presidential treatment!" A physical check-up and radiograph revealed no permanent damage to DC4's leg, with the only visible signs being a slight abrasion and swelling. Overall, the eaglet received an acceptable health report and was approved by the veterinarian to be placed back into its nest. DC4 was successfully returned to its nest at the Arboretum on April 21st at around 5pm EDT. Mr. President, The First Lady, and DC5 welcomed DC4 back home, safe and sound! The entire process of freeing the eaglet's lodged/stuck leg, getting it checked out/radiographed, and then returning it to the nest took less than 24 hours. Sue Greeley with USNA helped facilitate the entire process at the Arboretum, while AEF President Al Cecere guided and monitored the effort virtually by phone and internet from Tennessee. The nest cam footage of these events can be seen on the AEF's Facebook & Youtube pages. "We are extremely grateful for all USFWS, AEF, USNA, Ex-Cel, & Maryland Zoo staff and volunteers who readily responded to this emergency situation and helped make this a quick, safe and successful rescue effort," says Cecere. In 2015, the American Eagle Foundation (AEF) staff traveled to D.C. to install state-of-the-art cameras, infrared lighting, and other related equipment in-and-around the nest tree with the help of volunteers and experienced tree arborists and climbers. This past year, the AEF added microphones near the nest to further enhance the viewing experience, and a team of arborists and eagle experts affixed natural tree limbs beneath the nest to provide added support. The USDA's U.S. National Arboretum ran a half-mile of fiber optic cable to the cameras' ground control station, which connects the cameras and microphones to the Internet. The entire system is powered by a large mobile solar array (containing several deep cycle batteries) that was designed and built by students and staff from Alfred State College, SUNY College of Technology and was partially funded by the Department of Energy and Environment. USNA has implemented a backup generator that will kick-on if prolonged inclement weather causes the solar array to provide insufficient power to the system. In 2016, APEX Electric Inc. (Kenmore, Washington) traveled to D.C. to assist the AEF in successfully installing audio equipment in and around the tree. The AEF uses Piksel to stream the video images to viewers around the world, and AEF volunteers are trained and coordinated to pan, tilt and zoom the cams, as well as educate the public via LIVE chats while viewers watch the eagles via the cams on the Internet. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:

Whang S.S.,Chonbuk National University | Um W.S.,Chonbuk National University | Song I.-J.,Jeju National University | Lim P.O.,Jeju National University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Dendrobium moniliforme is a native species of Korea. The flower of this species is composed of a reproductive column and white perianths including petals, sepals and lip, but the base of the column bears reddish purple pigment spots. Anthocyanins are major pigments that contribute flower color in Dendrobium. Three key anthocyanin biosynthetic genes encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), chalcone synthase (CHS), and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) were isolated and analyzed for their expression patterns in floral organs to understand the molecular mechanism underlying flower color development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that F3'5'H transcripts were highly accumulated in the base of the column compared with those of perianths, but the other two genes showed no significant difference among the floral organs. Microprojectile bombardment using the white perianths revealed that the transient expression of F3′5′H gene, but not DFR and CHS genes, was sufficient to produce reddish purple colored pigmentation. These results suggest that the lack of colors in perianths of D. moniliforme is at least due to transcriptional control of F3′5′H. The data presented here may improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying floral color development in D. moniliforme and contribute to advances in orchid biotechnology. © 2011 The Botanical Society of Korea.

News Article | February 24, 2017

WASHINGTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--On February 19, The First Lady laid her first egg of 2017 LIVE on the DC Eagle Cam ( The world has been watching and waiting to see if she and her faithful eagle companion, Mr. President, would have the chance to raise two eaglets again in 2017, and now that opportunity has arrived. On February 23 at around 4:26 p.m. EST, almost 4 days after the first, the mother eagle laid her second egg! If you missed it, you can watch a video of it HERE. From this point forward, both parents will take turns diligently and vigilantly incubating and protecting their future eaglets. Be it rain, hail, snow, thunder, lightning, predators, or even hurricanes, eagle parents are very protective and will weather all types of situations to keep their eggs safe and warm. The approximate 35-day incubation countdown to hatching has now begun, which means the American Eagle Foundation (AEF), its DC Eagle Cam Project partners, and viewers will be on “hatch-watch” the last week of March. In 2015, these eagle parents raised one eaglet (deemed DC1) in their nest at the top of this Tulip Poplar Tree in the U.S. National Arboretum. In 2016, they raised two eaglets (which were deemed DC2 & DC3 before the public officially nicknamed them Freedom & Liberty). “If all goes well, we will be inviting DC4 & DC5 into the world in about 5 weeks! The fact that we only have two years of previous nesting data on these birds, however, still begs to question whether it’s possible that The First Lady could lay a third egg this week, especially since their nest is slightly larger this year,” says AEF representative Julia Cecere. “All we can do now is watch and wait. We are more than ecstatic about these two eggs...but watching three eaglets raised in one nest would be such a thrill for viewers everywhere.” For all of the DC Eagle Cam fans who have fallen in love with watching this eagle pair, there is now a beautiful hardcover book documenting the pair’s first two nesting seasons in the National Arboretum. The book can be purchased on or by visiting “Eagles have been the proud and majestic symbol of freedom for the USA for 235 years,” says AEF Founder and President Al Cecere. “During our second season online, we hope this American Eagle family reality show will again captivate, inspire, and educate many millions of animal and nature lovers, as well as die-hard patriots and Bald Eagle fans. This is certainly a wonderful experience that all Americans can rally around, embrace and feel united about.” In 2015, American Eagle Foundation (AEF) staff traveled to D.C. to install state-of-the-art cameras, infrared lighting, and other related equipment in-and-around the nest tree with the help of volunteers and experienced tree climbers. The USDA’s U.S. National Arboretum ran a half-mile of fiber optic cable to the cameras’ ground control station, which connects the cameras to the Internet. The entire system is powered by a large mobile solar array (containing several deep cycle batteries) that was designed and built by students and staff from Alfred State College, SUNY College of Technology and was partially funded by the Department of Energy and Environment. USNA has implemented a backup generator that will kick-on if prolonged inclement weather causes the solar array to provide insufficient power to the system. In 2016, APEX Electric Inc. (Kenmore, Washington) traveled to D.C. to assist the AEF in successfully installing audio equipment in and around the tree. The AEF uses Piksel to stream the video images to viewers around the world, and AEF volunteers are trained and coordinated to pan, tilt and zoom the cams, as well as educate the public via LIVE chats while viewers watch the eagles on the Internet.

News Article | February 17, 2016

This March, live-streaming, high-definition cameras will offer a rare peek into the hatching of a pair of bald eagles’ eggs. Eager spectators from around the world can watch the nest of bald eagles “Mr. President” and “The First Lady,” a pair nesting in the U.S. National Arboretum in Washington. Nonprofit group American Eagle Foundation partnered with USNA, which has been keeping a close eye on the pair since they arrived in 2014, to offer the eagle nest viewing experience on or The eagles performed winter-time “nestorations” or the act of fortifying their home with sticks and making it conducive for their forthcoming family life. The first egg was laid Feb. 10, with a second one coming shortly after on Valentine’s Day. The eggs are expected to hatch by mid-March after a 35-day incubation period – something that eagle nest cams, a novel form of “inspirational online entertainment,” aim to bring to viewers worldwide. The popular eagle pair chose a tulip poplar tree in the National Arboretum’s azaleas last October 2014, the first pair to nest in the area since 1947. They managed to raise a healthy eaglet during spring and summer last year. The two HD video cams are positioned at the nest tree top, offering direct glimpse into the nest. Experts from the AEF and a number of tree climbers installed the equipment in and around the nesting location after the pair left for their yearly migration last August. The control box of the cameras is positioned around 200 feet from the tree base, enabled by half a mile of fiber optic cable. A large solar array designed by Alfred State College staff and students powers the whole system. Julia Cecere of AEF said it was quite a risk to spearhead such project when bald eagles are not always guaranteed to return to their first-year nests. "It was a happy day for everyone when both eagles were spotted back on the nest this past October,” she recalls. A multi-agency effort will help minimize disturbance to the bald eagles and will assess environmental contaminants present in their nests. The eaglets will also undergo blood testings and be marked for identification. Vouching for the growing popularity of eagle nest cams, webcams are also pointed at two mated pairs in East Tennessee, particularly in Bluff City and Johnson City. Bald eagles are birds of prey reusing the same nest for a couple of years. They build upon such existing homes every breeding season and produce a massive residence that can weigh over a ton. In 2007, these fascinating creatures were taken off the endangered species list and has continued to soar with greater numbers ever since. In New Jersey alone, volunteers recorded 191 nest sites during the season, 150 of which had eggs and thus deemed active.

News Article | March 18, 2016

Just in time for election season, you can now feel your U.S.A. pride by watching bald eagles hatch their eggs via a live feed from the American Eagle Foundation. The eagles in question took up residence in a picturesque tree in Washington, D.C., in 2014, nestled among the Azalea Collection at the U.S. National Arboretum. These birds sure know how to pick appropriately patriotic real estate. The project, dubbed D.C. Eagle Cam, uses solar-powered cameras and is a collaboration between the National Arboretum and the American Eagle Foundation. The mated eagles, dubbed Mr. President and The First Lady, had their first egg of 2016 begin the hatching process on Wednesday around 7:30 p.m., according to the D.C. Eagle Cam website. The second egg is due to hatch soon, and you can guess the dates and times on social media using #dceaglecam. Meanwhile, just enjoy the peaceful serenity of an American Bald Eagle chilling in our nation's capital, never having to think about Donald Trump. What a world.

News Article | April 27, 2016

After tens of thousands of votes, two baby bald eagles born at the U.S. National Arboretum in Washington, D.C. have been officially named "Freedom" and "Liberty." Since February, more than 35 million people have witnessed the progress of the two baby bald eagles from eggs to hatchlings to eaglets. Born with names DC2 and DC3, the viewers of these adorable bald eaglets suggested names and five of the most popular name pairs that were suggested via the "Name the Nestlings" social media campaign were put to public vote. The top five pairs of names were Freedom and Liberty, Stars and Stripes, Honor and Glory, Anacostia and Potomac, and Cherry and Blossom. The voting was held from April 19 through April 24 at the Friends of the National Arboretum Facebook page. After the votes were cast, eagle experts from government agencies and private organizations picked the names and announced them on April 26. "Matthew and I voted for these names. We have followed the babies since birth and are looking forward to when they take flight. We thank the National Arboretum for allowing us to watch this event," Facebook user Marilee Barton said in her comment on the announcement of the names. In 2014, a pair of bald eagles nestled high on a Tulip Poplar tree amongst the Azalea Collection at the U.S. National Arboretum. Named "Mr. President" and "The First Lady," the pair mated and laid two eggs in February. "The First Lady" laid her first egg on February 10 and her second egg on February 14. The two eggs hatched on March 18 and March 20. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the national bird of the United States,  are the only unique eagles to North America. These eagles live in areas where there is an abundant supply of salmon. Dead or dying fishes are an important food source for bald eagles. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) lists the bald eagle under the category of least concern among threatened species. This species has an extremely large range and its population trend appears to be increasing. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

Go R.,University Putra Malaysia | Eng K.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Mustafa M.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdullah J.O.,University Putra Malaysia | And 6 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2011

A comprehensive study on the orchid diversity in Penang Hill, Penang, Malaysia was conducted from 2004 to 2008 with the objective to evaluate the presence of orchid species listed by Curtis (J Strait Br R Asiat Soc 25:67-173, 1894) after more than 100 years. A total of 85 species were identified during this study, of which 52 are epiphytic or lithophytic and 33 are terrestrial orchids. This study identified 57 species or 64.8% were the same as those recorded by Curtis (1894), and 78 species or 66.1% of Turner's (Gardens' Bull Singap 47(2):599-620, 1995) checklist of 118 species for the state of Penang including 18 species which were not recorded by Curtis (1894) and the current study but are actually collected from Penang Hill. A comparison table of the current findings against Curtis (1894) and Turner (1995) is provided which shows only 56 species were the same in all three studies. The preferred account for comparison was Curtis' (1894) list as his report was specifically for the areas around Penang Island especially Penang Hill, Georgetown and Ayer Itam areas. Our study reveals that about 50% of Curtis' collection localities have been converted to residential areas and agricultural land, and this probably explains the decreasing numbers of species found in the current study especially for the terrestrial species as epiphytic species have better adaptation capabilities towards environmental changes. Seven species were identified as new records to Penang Hill as they were not recorded by Curtis (1894). None of the three species recorded as endemic to Penang by Turner (1995) was recollected during the current study, of which only Zeuxine rupestris was in Curtis' (1894) list. Overall, we concluded that Penang hill harbours at least 136 species of orchids of which 78 species or 57. 4% were recollected in this study. This also indicates that this area is still suitable for orchid growth even though it is surrounded by rapid development and mass conversion of forested land into fruit orchards and residential area. The designation of Penang Hill as a Permanent Forest Reserve would better guarantee the survival of some orchid species unless human interventions and climatic changes occur. © 2011 The Author(s).

Han S.-H.,Korea forest Research Institute | Kim D.-H.,Korea forest Research Institute | Ku J.-J.,National Arboretum | Byun J.K.,Korea forest Research Institute | Lee J.C.,Korea forest Research Institute
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology | Year: 2010

The objective of our study was to investigate the major reasons for the different growth and visible injury on the needles of black pine growing in Ulsan and Yeocheon industrial complex areas, South Korea. After 12 years of growth, we collected climatic and air pollutant data, and analyzed soil properties and the physiological characteristics of black pine needles. Annual and minimum temperatures in Ulsan were higher than those in Yeocheon from 1996 to 2008. Ozone (O3) was the pollutant in greatest concentration in Yeocheon, and whereas the SO2 concentration in most areas decreased gradually during the whole period of growth, SO2 concentration in Yeocheon has increased continuously since 1999, where it was the highest out of four areas since 2005. Total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity in Yeocheon soil were significantly lower than those of Ulsan. The average growth of black pine in Yeocheon was significantly smaller than that in Ulsan, and the growth of damaged trees represented a significant difference between the two sites. Photosynthetic pigment and malondialdehyde content and antioxidative enzyme activity in the current needles of black pine in Yeocheon were not significantly different between damaged and healthy trees, but in 1-year-old needles, there were significant differences between damaged and healthy trees. In conclusion, needle damage in Yeocheon black pine can be considered the result of long-term exposure to oxidative stress by such as O3 or SO2, rather than a difference in climatic condition or soil properties, and the additional expense of photosynthate needed to overcome damage or alleviate oxidative stress may cause growth retardation. © The Ecological Society of Korea.

News Article | March 20, 2016

(Reuters) - The second eaglet from a pair of bald eagles known as "Mr President" and "the First Lady" emerged from its shell on Sunday at Washington's National Arboretum. The latest edition was seen on an "eagle cam" that has been providing live footage of the first bald eagles to nest since 1947 in the Arboretum, a park-like conservatory in northeast Washington. The video from the American Eagle Foundation shows the parents, and two fluffy eaglets in the nest. The first eaglet hatched on Friday. "Things are going to get a lot more interesting with four in the D.C. Eagle Cam nest! Mr. President and The First Lady are going to have their hands full!" the American Eagle Foundation, a conservation group dedicated to protecting bald eagles, wrote on its Facebook page. The first egg was laid on Feb. 10 and the other on Feb. 14. The pair built their nest in a tulip poplar tree in 2015. The federally protected bird, or Haliaeetus leucocephalus, is featured on currency and in the presidential seal, and was adopted as the national U.S. bird symbol in 1782. The bald eagle almost disappeared from the United States decades ago, but habitat protection and the banning of the pesticide DDT led to its recovery. The bird was removed from the federal endangered species list in 2007.

Millions watched in awe early Sunday when a second bald eagle hatched live on the Washington, D.C., Eagle Nest Cam at the National Arboretum. DC3, the second healthy eaglet of Mr. President and The First Lady, came to life at around 3 in the morning — more than 12 hours earlier than anticipated — high in a tulip poplar tree, wobbly-headed and sheathed in fuzzy gray downy feathers. It joined its older sibling DC2, which hatched last Friday. The eagle cam has received phenomenal public response since the website launch on Feb. 15 — since starting, the live cams have been viewed more than 7 million times. The official hashtag #dceaglecam also trended all over the World Wide Web. Twitter went abuzz with congratulations, with personalities such as Jill Biden, the vice president's wife, tweeting: "Congratulations to 'Mr. President' and 'The First Lady' on the arrival of two eaglets!" Some even took it as a sign of spring's arrival. Nonprofit group American Eagle Foundation Founder and President Al Cecere highlighted the unifying purpose of the live hatching caught by the eagle cam. "[I]t seems that citizens across America have momentarily put their political differences and disagreements aside to share and enjoy together the special importance, wonder, and meaning of their symbolic National Bird," Cecere says. Wildlife biologist Daniel Rauch of the Department of Energy and Environment reported midmorning of Sunday that DC3 had already eaten and was recovering from its premature hatching. Both baby birds are not expected to leave the popular nest until 12 or 13 weeks of age. Their gender, too, remains unknown. In the next 12 weeks they will slowly transform into full-fledged young eagles with pure brown plumage. While still dependent on their parents, they will start using their natural skills in self-feeding and "wingersizing," or learning how to use their wings. AEF, in partnership with the National Arboretum, has been keeping a close eye on the bald eagle couple since they arrived in 2014, providing live nest viewing on or The special moments include the time the eagles undertook winter-time "nestorations" and their first laying of an egg on Feb. 10. The well-loved eagle pair is the first to nest in the area since 1947. Bald eagles were removed from the endangered list in 2007 and have continued to improve in numbers since then. Birds of prey that reuse the same nest for a few years, they build upon their existing homes each breeding season and create a massive shelter that can reach more than a ton in weight. The project partners are hopeful that the two new bald eagles will fledge their nest in the summer, although it should be noted that this is a wild nest — factors such as sibling rivalry, natural events and predation could affect the family and the quality of viewing via live cams.

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