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Habibu B.,Ahmadu Bello University | Kawu M.,Ahmadu Bello University | Makun H.,National Animal Production Research Institute | Aluwong T.,Ahmadu Bello University | And 3 more authors.
Archives Animal Breeding | Year: 2017

The influences of breed, sex and age on seasonal changes in haematological variables of kids (1–4 months old) belonging to Red Sokoto (n Combining double low line 60) and Sahel (n Combining double low line 60) goats were studied at the peaks of the cold-dry, hot-dry and rainy seasons in a West Africa Guinea savanna climate. The results showed that, during the hot-dry season, Sahel goat kids had significantly higher (P < 0.05) packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cell (RBC) count but lower (P < 0.05) mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and total leucocyte count than Red Sokoto kids. Similarly, younger kids of both breed had significantly higher (P < 0.05) PCV and RBC but lower MCV, MCH and MCHC compared with the older kids during the hot-dry season. Younger kids (1–2 months) of both breeds exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) high PCV and RBC but low MCH and MCHC during the hot-dry season as compared with the cold-dry and rainy seasons, with the magnitude of the change being greater in Sahel kids. More remarkable seasonal fluctuations in haematological parameters were observed in buck kids than doe kids of both breeds. Multivariate analysis revealed a clear distinction between the change in haematological parameters during the cold-dry as compared with the hot-dry and rainy seasons, with MCV having the strongest discriminating power (0.91∗). In conclusion, breed, age and sex variations in haematological variables of goats were more pronounced in the hot-dry season, during which the seasonal changes were more dramatic in kids of Sahel goats, as well as in younger and male kids of both breeds. These findings may be useful in the management of tropical goat kids in different seasons.


Dafwang I.I.,National Agricultural Extension Research Liason Services | Tegbe T.S.B.,National Animal Production Research Institute | Sekoni A.,National Animal Production Research Institute
Asian Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Sweet Potato Meal (SPM) was used to substitute maize on weight for weight basis as a dietary source of energy for starter and finisher chickens. The SPM was incorporated at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% levels in both studies without adjustments for energy and protein. Ross broiler chicks obtained from a local hatchery were used for the studies. Three replicates of 15 chicks each were randomly allocated to each of the 7 treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) for the starter phase while the number of birds was reduced to 14 per group for the finisher phase. Parameters measured or calculated include feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, feed cost, feed cost/kg wt. gain, mortality and carcass characteristics. The starter phase study was on 1 to 5 week-old chicks while the finisher study was on 6 to 9 week-old chickens. The trend of results in the two phases were similar and showed that weight gain, feed intake and total cost of raising birds decreased significantly (p<0.5) while the feed cost/kg wt. gain and feed: gain ratio increased (p<0.05). The control, 10 and 20% SPM diets gave similar feed efficiency. The control gave the best performance, though its performance was not different (p>0.05) from those of the 10 and 20% SPM diets. Dietary SPM levels had no adverse effects on mortality and carcass characteristics. It is concluded that SPM should not be included beyond 20% level when substituted for maize on a weight for weight basis without adjusting the dietary protein and energy. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.


Dafwang I.I.,National Agricultural Extension Research Laison Services | Sekoni A.,National Animal Production Research Institute | Jegede J.O.,National Animal Production Research Institute
Asian Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2013

A study was conducted to compare maize and Sweet Potato Meal (SPM) as sources of energy in grower chickens' diets while another was conducted to determine the effect of SPM on the performance of the birds used in the grower study. A total of 210 pullets aged 10 weeks of Shika Brown breed were used for the grower study, while a total of 180 chickens aged 23 weeks acquired from the proceeds of the first study were used for the layer study. Five treatments comprising of diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels of SPM were applied in both experiments in a completely randomized manner and performance of birds were monitored at both phases. Each of the experiments lasted 12 weeks. Result of grower study showed that the control, 10 and 20% SPM diets produced similar weight gain, final weight, feed efficiency and feed cost kg-1 weight gain and were superior (p<0.05) to 30 and 40% SPM diets. Result of the layer experiment showed that the control, 10 and 20% SPM diets produced similar final body weight, weight gain, feed intake, hen-day egg production and cumulative egg production/bird which were significantly better (p<0.05) than those produced by the 30 and 40% SPM diets. Ages at 1st egg and at 5% production were least (p<0.05) for the control birds while the age at 50% production was least for the 10% SPM diets. From the result, it is inferred that grower chicken or young layers should not be fed with diets containing more than 20% SPM. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc.


Musa A.A.,Kogi State University | Orunmuyi M.,Federal University, Oye-Ekiti | Akpa G.N.,Ahmadu Bello University | Olutunmogun A.K.,National Animal Production Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
South African Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2015

To evaluate heterosis, reciprocal effect, general and specific combining abilities for bodyweight, a diallel crossing experiment was conducted using three genotypes of Nigerian indigenous chickens: Normal (N), frizzle (F) and naked-neck (Na). A total of 601 chicks was hatched from all possible matings between the three genotypes. The chicks used in this study were hatched from a foundation stock of 90 chickens comprising 25 hens and 5 cocks for each of the three genotypes. A mating ratio of 1 male: 5 females was employed. Furthermore, data on bodyweight were scrutinized with complete diallel analysis after they had been corrected for significant effects of hatch of birds using least squares constants. The results revealed that bodyweight (BWT) was significantly influenced by genetic groups with the frizzle-naked (FNa) having the best performance at all ages (4-20 weeks) except at hatch, with a mean final BWT of 1173 g at 20 weeks old. The next best performing was its reciprocal, the naked-frizzle (NaF), with a mean final BWT of 1162 g. Furthermore, the FNa gave the best estimates for heterosis and specific combining ability, while the F and NNa gave the best estimates for general combining ability and reciprocal effect, respectively. Therefore, the F genotype as sire and the Na as dam provided the most suitable combination for improved BWT. Furthermore, the use of the Na genotype as dam was more suitable owing to the significant reciprocal effect.


Habibu B.,Ahmadu Bello University | Kawu M.U.,Ahmadu Bello University | Makun H.J.,National Animal Production Research Institute | Buhari H.U.,Ahmadu Bello University | Hussaini M.,National Animal Production Research Institute
Comparative Clinical Pathology | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sex, breed and season on erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) as a biomarker of erythrocyte membrane integrity and oxidative stress in Red Sokoto (n = 60) and Sahel (n = 60) kids exposed to the peak of the three distinct seasons prevailing in the Northern Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria. The results revealed that irrespective of breed, thermal stress during the hot-dry season (HDS) had greater influence on EOF causing significant (P < 0.05) increase in EOF when compared with the cold-dry (CDS). The EOF of Red Sokoto kids was significantly (P < 0.05) higher during the HDS, but lower (P < 0.05) during the CDS when compared with that of Sahel kids. There was no significant (P > 0.05) sex difference in the EOF of both breeds. In conclusion, breed and season dramatically influence the susceptibility of erythrocytes of kids to hypotonic haemolysis with heat stress during the HDS causing decrease in membrane integrity in both breeds of goats. However, sexual immaturity may be responsible for lack of sexual dimorphism in EOF in both breeds. The use of mitigation techniques and prevention of additional stress factors such as weaning is recommended during the peak of the HDS. © 2016 Springer-Verlag London


Chiezey N.P.,National Animal Production Research Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Following manifestations of alopecia, hair pulling and diarrhea in a flock of confined sheep, an investigation was carried out in which clinical observations, and sample analysis were used in arriving at a diagnosis. The animals consisted of 60 Yankasa rams aged between 6 -18 months, which were being conditioned for experimental purposes. They had been held indoors for a period of two months to acclimatize, and were being fed a finely ground 12.7% crude protein concentrate ration, hay and trace mineral salt. Affected animals were seen to be loosing hair, some had diarrhoea and eventually two animals became recumbent and died. Post mortem revealed mats of hair strands in the rather fluid abomasal contents. Skin scrapings of other animals were negative for ectoparasites and faecal samples examinations yielded only the presence of a few coccidian oocysts (+). No specific explanation for the symptoms was apparent and so a nutritional problem was suspected. The finely ground feed was changed, and replaced with a coarse one and hay supplied ad libitum. The problem abated and the bare skin patches returned to normal about two months after the diet was adjusted. Continual feeding of concentrate diets of fine particle size may have negative effects on animal health and performance.

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