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Chaka H.,University of Pretoria | Chaka H.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Goutard F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bisschop S.P.R.,University of Pretoria | Thompson P.N.,University of Pretoria
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), Pasteurella multocida (PM) infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. In total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia, and were tested using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of ND, PM, MG, and IBD was 5.9, 66.2, 57.7, and 91.9%, respectively, during the dry season, and 6.0, 63.4, 78.7, and 96.3%, respectively, during the wet season. The seroprevalence of MG was higher (P < 0.001) during the wet season than during the dry season and higher (P = 0.002) in Adami-Tulu-Jido-Kombolcha woreda (74%) than in Ada'a woreda (60%). Area and season had no significant effect on the seroprevalence of ND, IBD, and PM, indicating the widespread presence of those pathogens throughout the year in the study area. Of all the chickens tested, 85.6% had antibodies concurrently to more than one of the pathogens investigated. Birds were concurrently seropositive to more diseases during the wet season (median = 3) than during the dry season (median = 2; P = 0.002). As serology is not able to distinguish between strains, further studies are warranted to better understand the circulating strains, their interactions, and their economic effect on backyard poultry production in Ethiopia. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Hussen H.,Jimma University | Chaka H.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Deneke Y.,Jimma University | Deneke Y.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

A cross-sectional survey on gastrointestinal helminths was conducted on 124 chickens raised under traditional management system in two selected districts namely Ada'a and Adamitulu of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 111 (89.5%) were found to harbor one of the five different helminth parasites and 13 (10.48%) were free of helminths parasites. The study also found that 103 (83.0%) and 72 (58.0%) of the examined chickens were invariably infected by diverse species of cestodes and nematodes species, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in the prevalence between cestodes and nematodes of helminths parasites within the same district. The major cestode species recovered form chickens wereRaillietina echinobothrida 79 (63.7%), Raillietina tetragona 70 (56.5%), Raillietina cesticillus 50 (40.3%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum 17 (13.7%), Davainea proglottina 10 (8.1%), Hymenolepis contaniana 22 (17.7%) and Hymenolepis carioca 7 (17.7%). The major nematode species encountered were Heterakis gallinarum 47 (37.9%), Ascaridia galli 40 (32.0%), Gongylonema ingluvicola 32 (25.8%), Dispharynx nasuta 5 (4.0%), Heterakis isolonche 11 (8.9%), Allodapa suctoria 9 (7.3%), Capillaria anatis 4 (3.2%) and Heterakis dispar 8 (6.5%). The study also tried to see the prevalence of these parasites in relation with age and sex however, it has no significant difference (p>0.05) with those risk factors. On the other hand district significantly affect the prevalence of some parasites (p<0.05). This study strongly suggested that helminthosis is a very serious problem of backyard chickens in eastern Shewa zone of Oromia and appropriate control strategies need to be devised. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Olani A.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Habtamu Y.,National Institute for Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Control and Eradication | Wegayehu T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Anberber M.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Parasitology Research | Year: 2016

A study was made to determine the prevalence of camel trypanosomosis (surra) and its associated risk factors in Borena zone, southern Ethiopia during 2013–2014. A total of 2400 blood samples were collected and examined by the buffy coat and thin blood film laboratory methods, and data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The overall prevalence of camel trypanosomosis in the area was found to be 2.33 %. Prevalence was significantly different among the surveyed districts (P = 0.000), the pastoral associations (F = 6.408, P = 0.000), altitudinal divisions (P = 0.000), age groups (P = 0.034), and between animals possessing packed cell volume (PCV) values greater than 25 % and less than 25 % (P = 0.000); whereas, prevalence of the disease was not statistically significantly different between the sexes (P = 0.311) and among the body condition score groups (P = 0.739). The PCV of trypanosome positive and trypanosome negative camels differ significantly (P = 0.001), and prevalence of trypanosomosis was seen to be negatively correlated with packed cell volume (r = −0.069, P = 0.000) revealing the effect of camel trypanosomosis on anemia state of parasitized animals. In conclusion, camel trypanosomosis is a serious and economically important disease hampering camel production and productivity in southern Ethiopia. Further studies involving more sensitive molecular techniques to reveal the precise magnitude of the disease and to identify the vector species of the parasite are recommended. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Chaka H.,University of Pretoria | Chaka H.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Goutard F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Roger F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

A cross-sectional study with repeated sampling was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity and for incidence of ND virus (NDV) exposure in household flocks of backyard chickens in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected from 260 randomly selected households in 52 villages in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha and Ada'a woredas (districts) using a structured questionnaire, and serum samples from chickens were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sampling took place during September 2009 and the same households were again sampled in May 2010. Household-level seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were estimated in various ways using serological results from the two samplings, flock dynamics, and farmers' reports of ND in their flocks. The risk factors were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. Household-level seroprevalence at the two sampling times was 17.4% and 27.4%, respectively, and the estimated incidence of household-level NDV exposure during the intervening period ranged between 19.7% and 25.5%. At the first sampling, reduced frequency of cleaning of poultry waste was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (OR=4.78; 95% CI: 1.42, 16.11; P=0.01) while hatching at home vs. other sources (buying in replacement birds, receiving as gift or buying fertile eggs) was associated with lower odds of seropositivity, both at the first sampling (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P=0.02) and the second sampling (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; P<0.001). The risk of NDV exposure was shown to be higher with larger flock size at the beginning of the observation period (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 1.25, 10.39; P=0.02). Using an open water source (pond or river) for poultry compared to closed sources (tap or borehole) was associated with increased risk of NDV exposure (OR=3.14; 95% CI: 1.12, 8.8; P=0.03). The use of a grain supplement (OR=0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.69; P=0.03) and hatching at home for flock replacement (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; P=0.005) were associated with a lower risk of NDV exposure. Newcastle disease seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were more heterogeneous between villages than between kebeles (aggregations of villages) and woredas in the study area. Further investigation of village-level risk factors would likely improve our understanding of ND epidemiology in backyard chickens. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Jenberie S.,National Veterinary Institute | Awol N.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Ayelet G.,National Veterinary Institute | Gelaye E.,National Veterinary Institute | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

This study was carried out with the aim of identifying types of gross and histopathological lesions in lungs of camels slaughtered between October 2009 and April 2010 at Addis Ababa abattoir enterprise, Ethiopia. All camels were originated from Borana and Kereyu areas. A total of 387 slaughtered camel lungs were inspected during the study period. Of which, one or more gross lesions were encountered on 300 lungs. Lesions were further subjected for detail gross and histopathological examinations. The occurrence of pulmonary lesions was 77.5%. The gross and histopathological examination of these lesions had revealed 60.2% emphysema, 21.2% hydatidosis, 18.6% pneumonia, 10.6% atelectasis, 4.9% aspiration of blood, 3.9% pneumoconiosis, 2.6% pulmonary edema and congestion, 1.6% abscess, 1% pleurisy, and 0.8% granulomatous pneumonia. Most camels had one or more pulmonary lesions on postmortem examination, but they were apparently healthy during antemortem inspection. Therefore, the prevailing stressful environmental condition coupled with the existing poor level of veterinary service in camel-rearing areas of the country might reverse these hidden inactive lesions and thereby contributed for the higher occurrence of respiratory diseases in camels. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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