National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center

Sebeta, Ethiopia

National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center

Sebeta, Ethiopia
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Tsegay A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Tuli G.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Kassa T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Kebede N.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2017

Background: Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses globally with great veterinary and public health importance, particularly in developing countries where people are having frequent contact with livestock and animal products. This cross sectional study was carried out from November 2013 to May 2014 to determine the seroprevalence and assess the potential risk factors of brucellosis in abattoir workers of five export abattoirs at Debre Ziet and Modjo, Central Ethiopia. Methods: Serology and structured questionnaire were the methods used. In this study, 156 abattoir workers participated in the questionnaire survey and among them, 149 agreed for blood sample collection. Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test were conducted using sera samples at serology laboratory of the National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center. Data collection sheets were used to gather information on possible risk factors believed to influence the spread of Brucella infection in abattoir workers such as sex, age, marital status, duration on job, types of work, educational level, etc. and further information obtained include knowledge of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases infection, symptoms of the disease, milk and meat consumption habits and work related risk factors. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in abattoir workers was found to be 4.7 and 1.3% using Rose Bengal plate test and Compliment fixation test, respectively. Based on the questionnaire survey, 66 (44.2%) and 85 (53.21%) of abattoir workers were aware of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases, and 29 (18.6%) and 21 (13.5%) were using gloves and cover their mouth while slaughtering, respectively. Conclusion: Brucellosis in abattoir workers could be prevented by using protective closing and measures. Concerned body should educate occupationally exposed groups and the general public regarding e prevention and control of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. © 2017 The Author(s).


Negussie H.,Ghent University | Negussie H.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Gizaw D.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Tessema T.S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Nauwynck H.J.,Ghent University
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2017

Although equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) is a sporadic and relatively uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), it has the potential for causing devastating outbreaks in horses. Up till now, there were no reported EHM outbreaks in donkeys and mules. This study describes the isolation and molecular characterization of EHV-1 from clinically EHM-affected horses (n = 6), mules (n = 3) and donkeys (n = 82) in Ethiopia during outbreaks from May 2011 to December 2013. The incidence of EHM cases was higher from April to mid-June. EHM in donkeys was more severe and death without clinical signs of paralysis, and recumbency was frequently observed. The main age of affected equines ranged from 7 to 10 years (n = 51; 56.0%), and females (n = 58; 63.7%) were more affected than males. The incidence of neuropathogenic (D752) and non-neuropathogenic (N752) variants of EHV-1 from EHM-affected equines in Ethiopia was assessed by sequencing the DNA polymerase gene (ORF30) of the EHV-1 isolates. The results indicated that from the total of 91 clinically affected equines, 90 (98.9%) of them had an ORF30 D752 genotype. An ORF30 N752 variant was only found in one donkey. Analysis of ORF68 as grouping marker for geographical differences showed that the Ethiopian EHV-1 isolates belong to geographical group 4. Due to the fatal nature of EHV-1 in donkeys, it would be interesting to examine the pathogenesis of EHM in this species. At present, there is no vaccine available in Ethiopia, and therefore, outbreaks of EHV-1 should be controlled by proper management adaptations. In addition, it is important to test the efficacy of the commercial vaccines not only in horses, but also in donkeys and mules. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH


Fikru A.,University of Gondar | Makonnen E.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Eguale T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Debella A.,Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute | Abie Mekonnen G.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2012

Ethnopharmacological relevance: The leaves of Achyranthes aspera L. (Amarenthacea) has been used traditionally for the treatment of wound in various parts of Ethiopia. However, the plant has not been explored scientifically for its wound healing activity. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera L. leaves in rats. Materials and methods: Incision and excision wounds were inflicted on albino rats of either sex, under diethyl ether anesthesia. Group I served as positive control and was treated with 1% silver sulphadiazine, group II, III, IV treated with simple ointment containing 2.5%, 5% and 10% (w/w) methanol extract of the leaves of Achyranthes aspera L.; respectively, whereas group V served as negative control and was treated with simple ointment. All the animals were treated topically once a day. Wound healing potential was assessed with excision and incision wound model. Excision wound model was used to assess the change in percentage contraction of wound, epithelization time, DNA content and histological features whereas rats inflicted with the incision wounds were used to determine breaking strength. Results: Based on the results of percentage wound contraction, the DNA content and epithelization time, all groups of rats treated with methanol extract of the leaves of Achyranthes aspera L. showed significant (p<0.05) wound healing activity compared to group of rats treated with simple ointment (negative control) group. The difference in breaking strength was, however, significant (p<0.05) only for the 5% and 10% methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera (w/w) ointment treated groups. Histological evaluation showed well organized epidermal layer, increased number of fibrocytes, remarkable degree of neovascularization and epithelization which was comparable to the standard on the 21st day after treatment; especially in the 5% and 10% (w/w) extract treated group. Conclusion: The present study provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of the leaf extracts of Achyranthes aspera L. in the treatment of wound. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Gari G.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Gari G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Waret-Szkuta A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Waret-Szkuta A.,Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Group | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and associated risk factors in three main agro-climatic zones of Ethiopia. A total of 330 questionnaire surveys were collected from 44 peasant associations (PA) distributed in 15 districts. Across agro-climate zones, herd-level LSD prevalence in the midland agro-climate was significantly higher 552% [95% confidence interval (CI) 475-626] than in highland and lowland agro-climate zones. Overall observed LSD prevalence at animal-level was 81% (95% CI 73-89) and observed mortality was 212% (95% CI 173-26). The odds ratio (OR) of LSD occurrence in midland vs. highland and lowland vs. highland zones was 386 (95% CI 261-511) and 485 (95% CI 259-71), respectively. Significantly high risk of LSD occurrence was associated with communal grazing and watering management (OR 41, 95% CI 202-618) and introduction of new cattle (OR 85, 95% CI 60-110). Our findings describe the distribution of LSD in different agro-climates in Ethiopia along with associated risk factors, and can help shed light on the epidemiology of LSD in other African countries suffering from the disease. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Chaka H.,University of Pretoria | Chaka H.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Goutard F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Roger F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

A cross-sectional study with repeated sampling was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity and for incidence of ND virus (NDV) exposure in household flocks of backyard chickens in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected from 260 randomly selected households in 52 villages in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha and Ada'a woredas (districts) using a structured questionnaire, and serum samples from chickens were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sampling took place during September 2009 and the same households were again sampled in May 2010. Household-level seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were estimated in various ways using serological results from the two samplings, flock dynamics, and farmers' reports of ND in their flocks. The risk factors were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. Household-level seroprevalence at the two sampling times was 17.4% and 27.4%, respectively, and the estimated incidence of household-level NDV exposure during the intervening period ranged between 19.7% and 25.5%. At the first sampling, reduced frequency of cleaning of poultry waste was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (OR=4.78; 95% CI: 1.42, 16.11; P=0.01) while hatching at home vs. other sources (buying in replacement birds, receiving as gift or buying fertile eggs) was associated with lower odds of seropositivity, both at the first sampling (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P=0.02) and the second sampling (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; P<0.001). The risk of NDV exposure was shown to be higher with larger flock size at the beginning of the observation period (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 1.25, 10.39; P=0.02). Using an open water source (pond or river) for poultry compared to closed sources (tap or borehole) was associated with increased risk of NDV exposure (OR=3.14; 95% CI: 1.12, 8.8; P=0.03). The use of a grain supplement (OR=0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.69; P=0.03) and hatching at home for flock replacement (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; P=0.005) were associated with a lower risk of NDV exposure. Newcastle disease seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were more heterogeneous between villages than between kebeles (aggregations of villages) and woredas in the study area. Further investigation of village-level risk factors would likely improve our understanding of ND epidemiology in backyard chickens. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Chaka H.,University of Pretoria | Chaka H.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Goutard F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bisschop S.P.R.,University of Pretoria | Thompson P.N.,University of Pretoria
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), Pasteurella multocida (PM) infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. In total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia, and were tested using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of ND, PM, MG, and IBD was 5.9, 66.2, 57.7, and 91.9%, respectively, during the dry season, and 6.0, 63.4, 78.7, and 96.3%, respectively, during the wet season. The seroprevalence of MG was higher (P < 0.001) during the wet season than during the dry season and higher (P = 0.002) in Adami-Tulu-Jido-Kombolcha woreda (74%) than in Ada'a woreda (60%). Area and season had no significant effect on the seroprevalence of ND, IBD, and PM, indicating the widespread presence of those pathogens throughout the year in the study area. Of all the chickens tested, 85.6% had antibodies concurrently to more than one of the pathogens investigated. Birds were concurrently seropositive to more diseases during the wet season (median = 3) than during the dry season (median = 2; P = 0.002). As serology is not able to distinguish between strains, further studies are warranted to better understand the circulating strains, their interactions, and their economic effect on backyard poultry production in Ethiopia. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Kenubih A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Dagnachew S.,Gondar University | Almaw G.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Abebe T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2015

Objective: After the epidemics of L. donovani complex in 2004/05 in human patients, to investigate the presence of antibodies against L. donovani in domestic animals in north-west Ethiopia. Methods: Two hundred and three domestic animals were screened. Serum and biopsy samples were collected. A modified direct agglutination test (DAT) for canine reservoirs was used to screen serum samples at ≥ 1:320 cut-off titre. Giemsa stain and culture on Novy macNeal Nicolae (NNN) media were used for biopsy samples. Pre-tested questionnaires were used to elicit information on potential risk factors. Results: Antibody against L. donovani in domestic animals was detected in 30.5% of animals. The highest seropositivity rates were 41.9% in cattle, 40% in dogs, 33.3% in donkeys, 10% in goats and 4.8% in sheep. No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, skin snip and exudates, bone marrow or lymph node of dogs. Dogs owned by households with history of kala-azar treatment and humans sharing the house with cattle were more affected by visceral leishmaniasis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed a high serological prevalence of leishmaniasis in domestic animals. Their role in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis remains unclear. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Gari G.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Grosbois V.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Waret-Szkuta A.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Babiuk S.,National Center for Foreign Animal Disease | And 2 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2012

A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in the different agro-climatic zones prevailing in Ethiopia. A total of 2368 serum samples were collected from 42 . kebeles located in 15 districts and tested using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and virus neutralization test (VNT). The herd and animal true LSD serological prevalence were estimated in each agro-climate zone using a Bayesian model. The intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) was evaluated using a random-effect model. According to the serological prevalence estimations, LSD affected differently the three agro-climatic zones considered. Herd level seroprevalence was higher in the midland agro-climate zone 64% (95% CI: 53-74) as compared to the highland 26% (95% CI: 17-36) and the lowland 50% (95% CI: 40-60) agro-climates. Animal level seroprevalence in infected herds was also higher in the midland agro-climate zone 31% (95% CI: 24-40) than in the highland and lowland zones (24% (95% CI: 18-31) and 23% (95% CI: 18-29), respectively). Higher ICC value in the highland agro-climate zone implies that increased sample sizes should be particularly required for this zone in future studies to estimate LSD prevalence or incidence with a desired precision level. This seroprevalence study also suggests that the prevalence of LSD infection in Ethiopia is higher than what has been previously reported. In the light of these updated estimations, we discuss options to trigger appropriate control measures in the future. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Gari G.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Gari G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bonnet P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Roger F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Waret-Szkuta A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

The financial cost of clinical Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) and the financial benefit of its control through vaccination were studied based on questionnaire survey in Oromia region of Ethiopia from the perspective of livestock farmers. Production loss impacts for local zebu cattle were compared with those of Holstein Friesian (HF)/crossbred cattle in the study area. Annual cumulative incidence of LSD infection in HF/crossbred and local zebu cattle were 33.93% (95% CI: 30.92-36.94) and 13.41% (95% CI: 12.6-14.25) respectively and significantly different (p< 0.05). Annual mortality was also significantly higher in HF/crossbred 7.43% (95% CI: 5.76-9.10) than in local zebu cattle 1.25% (95% CI: 0.98-1.52).The annual financial cost was calculated as the sum of the average production losses due to morbidity and mortality arising from milk loss, beef loss, traction power loss, and treatment and vaccination costs at the herd level. The financial cost in infected herds was estimated to be USD 6.43 (5.12-8) per head for local zebu and USD 58 (42-73) per head for HF/crossbred cattle. A partial budget analysis was used to estimate the financial benefit of an annual vaccination program in both the local zebu and HF/crossbred cattle farming systems. The marginal rate of return (MRR) gained from this control intervention was estimated to be 34 (3400%) and the net benefit per head was USD 1 for local zebu and USD 19 for HF/crossbred cattle. Vaccination thus enabled financial costs due to LSD to be reduced by 17% per head in local zebu herds and 31% per head in HF/crossbred herds. These results could provide guidance to producers and the government in their endeavors to control the disease. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, National Institute for Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Control and Eradication and Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2016

A study was made to determine the prevalence of camel trypanosomosis (surra) and its associated risk factors in Borena zone, southern Ethiopia during 2013-2014. A total of 2400 blood samples were collected and examined by the buffy coat and thin blood film laboratory methods, and data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The overall prevalence of camel trypanosomosis in the area was found to be 2.33 %. Prevalence was significantly different among the surveyed districts (P=0.000), the pastoral associations (F=6.408, P=0.000), altitudinal divisions (P=0.000), age groups (P=0.034), and between animals possessing packed cell volume (PCV) values greater than 25 % and less than 25 % (P=0.000); whereas, prevalence of the disease was not statistically significantly different between the sexes (P=0.311) and among the body condition score groups (P=0.739). The PCV of trypanosome positive and trypanosome negative camels differ significantly (P=0.001), and prevalence of trypanosomosis was seen to be negatively correlated with packed cell volume (r=-0.069, P=0.000) revealing the effect of camel trypanosomosis on anemia state of parasitized animals. In conclusion, camel trypanosomosis is a serious and economically important disease hampering camel production and productivity in southern Ethiopia. Further studies involving more sensitive molecular techniques to reveal the precise magnitude of the disease and to identify the vector species of the parasite are recommended.

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