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Song C.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Song C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Cui Z.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Cui Z.,National and oLocal Joint Engineering Laboratory of Ecological Mariculture | And 5 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2015

The development of Eriocheir sinensis from the megalopa to the first juvenile crab undergoes brachyurization and a habitat transition from pelagic to benthic lifestyle. However, the molecular mechanism of this process is poorly understood in crabs. Using next-generation RNA sequencing, we identified 22,622 annotated unigenes and 1016 differentially expressed genes especially involved in metamorphosis, sensory perception and immunity in the two stages. Among 22,622 unigenes, 169 unigenes were assigned to morphogenic pathways (i.e., Wnt, Hedgehog and hormone biosynthesis). For metamorphosis, 38 up-regulated genes in megalopae were associated with cytoskeleton construction, while, 52 up-regulated genes in juvenile were related to cuticle development and protein degradation. Several crucial genes involved in phototransduction and two olfactory-related genes were significantly up-regulated in megalopae. Moreover, 44 immunity-related genes were highly expressed in megalopae. This study provides a comprehensive view of brachyurization and benthic adaptation mechanisms in E. sinensis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Shi G.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Shi G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Cui Z.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Cui Z.,National and oLocal Joint Engineering Laboratory of Ecological Mariculture | And 5 more authors.
Marine Genomics | Year: 2015

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of two primitive crabs, Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Raninidae) were determined. The mitogenomes of the two species are 15,466 and 16,112. bp in length with AT content of 68.0% and 70.6%, respectively. Each genome contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. The gene arrangement of U. orientalis is the same with those reported for most brachyuran species. Nevertheless, the gene arrangement of L. brevifrons differs from that of U. orientalis in having an additional non-coding region. The newly found non-coding region is located between nad3 and trnA with 641. bp in length. Its nucleotide composition and secondary structure are similar to the typical control region. In L. brevifrons, the secondary structures of trnS-AGN and trnI are significantly different from those in U. orientalis and other brachyuran species. The start codon for cox1 is ATG in all reported Eubrachyura mitogenomes, while a common start codon ACG is found in the Podotremata. Phylogenetic analyses for crustacean decapods based on the nucleotide and amino acid of 13 PCGs indicate that Homolidae is more primitive in Brachyura, and Raninidae is a sister group to Eubrachyura. This implies that Raninidae is closer to Eubrachyura than to Homolidae, and Podotremata may be a paraphyletic assemblage. The results also indicate that the subfamily Lyreidinae is closer to Notopodinae than to Ranininae within Raninidae. The novel mitogenome data provides useful information for refining the phylogenetic relationships within Brachyura. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Yang H.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Yang H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Li S.,National and oLocal Joint Engineering Laboratory of Ecological Mariculture | And 4 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2015

Syndecan is considered to be a multifunctional protein which functions as a cell surface receptor involved in cell adhesion, migration, cytoskeleton organization and differentiation. Previous bioinformatic analysis has revealed that syndecan in shrimp might interact with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In the present study, we experimentally studied the function of syndecan in shrimp immunity. The syndecan from Litopenaeus vannamei (. LvSDC) was cloned and analyzed. The full-length cDNA of LvSDC was 1005 bp, consisting of 59 bp 5'-UTR, 253 bp 3'-UTR, and 693 bp open reading frame encoding 230 amino acids. LvSDC consisted of an extracellular domain (ED), a transmembrane domain (TM) and a cytoplasmic domain (CD). TM and CD shared high similarities with those of syndecan proteins from other species. LvSDC was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues, with the highest level in Oka. After WSSV challenge, the transcription level of LvSDC in Oka was apparently up-regulated. Recombinant LvSDC protein and its rabbit polyclonal antibody were prepared for detecting the location of LvSDC in hemocytes using immunocytochemistry approach. Data showed that LvSDC mainly located at the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of hemocytes. After silencing of LvSDC with siRNA, the WSSV copy numbers and mortality of shrimp after WSSV infection were both significantly decreased. These data provide useful information for understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp to WSSV infection. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Li S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Li S.,National and oLocal Joint Engineering Laboratory of Ecological Mariculture | Guo S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Guo S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2014

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is one of the widely-studied antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and antiviral property. Previous studies show the existence of multiform of ALFs in crustacean which are important for immunity of the animals. In the present study, we characterized one isoform of ALF from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcALF2). Tissue distribution analysis revealed that FcALF2 showed the highest expression level in the lymphoid organ (Oka) of the shrimp. The expression level of FcALF2 in shrimp was significantly up-regulated when they were injected with Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Vibrio anguillarum. A peptide corresponding to the LPS-binding domain of FcALF2 (FcALF2-LBD) was synthesized to analyze its antimicrobial activities. Data demonstrated that FcALF2-LBD possessed strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus and M. lysodeikticus with MIC ranges of 2-4. μM and 1-2. μM respectively and significant inhibition activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The antibacterial activities of the sequence modified peptides (FcALF2-LBDb, FcALF2-LBDv) were apparently enhanced and broadened after the amount of basic amino acids was increased in the synthetic LPS-binding domain. These data provide more insights into understanding the function of LPS-binding domain of ALF and the role of ALF in shrimp immunity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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