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Athens, Greece

The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens , usually referred to simply as the University of Athens, has been in continuous operation since its establishment in 1837. It is the oldest higher education institution in the modern Greek state. Wikipedia.

Vlachantoni I.T.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Sleep medicine reviews | Year: 2013

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased arterial stiffness, a cumulative indicator of arterial health. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment for OSA. We conducted a meta-analysis of the available literature investigating the effect of CPAP on arterial stiffness in patients with OSA. Fifteen articles (n = 615 patients) assessing indices of arterial stiffness were identified. Five different meta-analyses were performed assessing: a) all indices of arterial stiffness, b) augmentation index (AIx), c) all pulse wave velocities (PWV), d) brachial-ankle PWV and e) carotid-femoral PWV. Pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs) were appropriately calculated through fixed or random effects models after assessing between-study heterogeneity. A significant improvement of all indices of arterial stiffness was observed after CPAP treatment (SMD = -0.74; 95%CI: -1.08 to -0.41). AIx and PWVs were also significantly improved (WMD = -4.86; 95%CI: -7.31 to -2.41 and WMD = -0.87; 95%CI: -0.98 to -0.77, respectively), as well as brachial-ankle PWV and carotid-femoral PWV (WMD = -0.86; 95%CI: -0.97 to -0.75 and WMD = -1.21; 95%CI:-1.92 to -0.50, respectively). Neither the proportion of compliant patients nor the duration of CPAP use altered the effect of arterial stiffness reduction after CPAP treatment. In conclusion, our meta-analyses showed significant improvements in all indices of arterial stiffness after CPAP treatment in patients with OSA. As clinical use of arterial stiffness is growing in popularity, the efficacy of this useful tool in assessing cardiovascular risk reduction among patients with OSA treated with CPAP needs to be further explored. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

The temperature of cities continues to increase because of the heat island phenomenon and the undeniable climatic change. The observed high ambient temperatures intensify the energy problem of cities, deteriorates comfort conditions, put in danger the vulnerable population and amplify the pollution problems. To counterbalance the phenomenon, important mitigation technologies have been developed and proposed. Among them, technologies aiming to increase the albedo of cities and the use of vegetative - green roofs appear to be very promising, presenting a relatively high heat island mitigation potential. This paper aims to present the state of the art on both the above technologies, when applied in the city scale. Tenths of published studies have been analysed. Most of the available data are based on simulation studies using mesoscale modeling techniques while important data are available from the existing experimental studies. When a global increase of the city's albedo is considered, the expected mean decrease of the average ambient temperature is close to 0.3. K per 0.1 rise of the albedo, while the corresponding average decrease of the peak ambient temperature is close to 0.9. K. When only cool roofs are considered, the analysis of the existing data shows that the expected depression rate of the average urban ambient temperature varies between 0.1 and 0.33. K per 0.1 increase of the roofs albedo with a mean value close to 0.2. K. As it concerns green roofs, existing simulation studies show that when applied on a city scale, they may reduce the average ambient temperature between 0.3 and 3. K. Detailed analysis of many studies reporting a comparison of the mitigation potential of both technologies has permitted the definition of the limits, the boundaries and the conditions under which the considered technologies reach their better performance, in a synthetic way. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

A cheap and fast construction of both enantiomers of substituted succinimides is reported. α- or β-amino acids, such as β-phenylalanine and α-tert-butyl aspartate, were found to be efficient organocatalysts for the reaction between α,α-disubstituted aldehydes and maleimides. Products containing contiguous quaternary-tertiary stereogenic centers are obtained in high to quantitative yields and excellent selectivities utilizing low catalyst loadings (0.5-3.5%). Finally, a one-pot efficient asymmetric synthesis of lactones is described. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Stefanis L.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | Year: 2012

α-Synuclein is a presynaptic neuronal protein that is linked genetically and neuropathologically to Parkinson's disease (PD). α-Synuclein may contribute to PD pathogenesis in a number of ways, but it is generally thought that its aberrant soluble oligomeric conformations, termed protofibrils, are the toxic species that mediate disruption of cellular homeostasis and neuronal death, through effects on various intracellular targets, including synaptic function. Furthermore, secreted α-synuclein may exert deleterious effects on neighboring cells, including seeding of aggregation, thus possibly contributing to disease propagation. Although the extent to which α-synuclein is involved in all cases of PD is not clear, targeting the toxic functions conferred by this protein when it is dysregulated may lead to novel therapeutic strategies not only in PD, but also in other neurodegenerative conditions, termed synucleinopathies. © 2012 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, all rights reserved. Source

Santamouris M.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Heat island phenomenon rises the temperature of cities, increases the energy demand for cooling and deteriorates comfort conditions in the urban environment. To counterbalance the impact of the phenomenon, important mitigation techniques have been proposed and developed. Pavements present a very high fraction of the urban areas and contribute highly to the development of heat island in cities. The use of cool pavements presenting substantially lower surface temperature and reduced sensible heat flux to the atmosphere, appears to be one of the most important proposed mitigation solutions. The present paper investigates and describes the actual state of the art on the field of cool pavements. The main thermal and optical parameters defining the thermal performance of pavements are analyzed. Almost all of the developed technologies, where data and results are available, are considered while emphasis is given on the presentation of reflective and permeable/water retentive pavements. The main technological achievements on both fields are reviewed while existing applications are described and performance data are given when available. The existing results clearly show that the mitigation and cooling potential of cool pavements is very significant and can highly contribute to decrease temperature on the urban environment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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