National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Athens, Greece

The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens , usually referred to simply as the University of Athens, has been in continuous operation since its establishment in 1837. It is the oldest higher education institution in the modern Greek state. Wikipedia.

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The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome Dr. Nicolaos V. Athienites, MD, to their prestigious organization with his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. He is a highly trained and qualified nephrologist with a vast expertise in all facets of his work, especially acute kidney failure, amyloidosis and acidosis. Dr. Athienites has been practicing for over three decades and is currently maintaining a position at Renal Medical Care in Brockton, Massachusetts. He is also affiliated with South Shore Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Dr. Nicolaos V. Athienites obtained his Medical Degree in 1986, when he graduated from the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in Greece. After moving to the United States, he completed an internship and residency at Newton-Wellesley Hospital, prior to a fellowship at Tufts Medical Center in Boston. Dr. Athienites is board certified in Nephrology by the American Board of Internal Medicine. To keep up to date with the latest advances and developments in his field, he maintains a professional membership with the American College of Physicians, the American Society of Nephrology and the Massachusetts Medical Society. Alongside his practice, he serves as an Assistant Professor at Tufts University School of Medicine, and attributes his success to his Herculean powers of perseverance. When he is not assisting patients, Dr. Athienites likes to stay fit by using calisthenics and ancient Greek exercises. Learn more about Dr. Athienites by reading his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics.  Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review. features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews and areas of expertise.  A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life.  For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit:

Pervanidou P.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Progress in brain research | Year: 2010

Dysregulation of the stress system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus caeruleus/norepinephrine-sympathetic nervous system (SNS), is involved in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder that develops after exposure to traumatic life events. Neuroendocrine studies in individuals with PTSD have demonstrated elevated basal cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone concentrations and contradictory results from peripheral measurements, exhibiting low 24 hours excretion of urinary free cortisol, low or normal circulating cortisol levels or even high plasma cortisol levels. The direction of HPA axis activity (hyper-/or hypo-activation), as evidenced by peripheral cortisol measures, may depend on variables such as genetic vulnerability and epigenetic changes, age and developmental stage of the individual, type and chronicity of trauma, co-morbid depression or other psychopathology, alcohol or other drug abuse and time since the traumatic experience. On the other hand, peripheral biomarkers of the SNS activity are more consistent, showing increased 24h urinary or plasma catecholamines in PTSD patients compared to control individuals. Chronically disturbed hormones in PTSD may contribute to brain changes and further emotional and behavior symptoms and disorders, as well as to an increased cardiometabolic risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kampoli A.M.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Current pharmaceutical design | Year: 2011

Insulin resistance and the vascular complications of diabetes include activation of the inflammation cascade, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. The comorbidities of diabetes, namely obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia collectively aggravate these processes while antihyperglycemic interventions tend to correct them. Increased C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha and especially interstitial cellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin are associated with cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We sought to review the clinical implications of the inflammation theory, including the relevance of inflammation markers as predictors of type 2 diabetes in clinical studies, and the potential treatments of diabetes, inferred from the pathophysiology.

Tousoulis D.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Current pharmaceutical design | Year: 2011

Atherosclerosis is a disease of arteries and is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and the build-up of lipids, cholesterol, calcium, and cellular debris within the intima of the vessel wall. A number of factors commonly characterized as "risk factors" for atherosclerosis have been identified to facilitate the development of atherosclerosis by decreasing NO bioavailability in the vascular endothelium. The serious clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis (including coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) augment the need of performing the appropriate diagnostic methods to the patients. The most important diagnostic methods include the usage of biochemical markers and the invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques assessing endothelial function. The main drug categories that have been proved to ameliorate the inflammatory state in atherosclerosis are angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptors blockers, statins, and antioxidants.

Siasos G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Current pharmaceutical design | Year: 2011

The role of inflammation in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases is well established. Systemic inflammation and immune system play a central role in atherogenesis. The strong dependence of the atherosclerotic process on both a state of continuous low grade inflammation and the presence of lipid abnormalities gave impetus to research the association between hyperlipidemia and inflammatory status. In experimental and clinical studies, several inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6, nuclear factor kappa-β, adhesion molecules, serum amyloid-α, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, fibrinogen and sCD40 ligand are associated with lipids level. Although, cholesterol lowering treatment has several important beneficial effects, there is still little clinical experience or data from clinical trials, in order to treat patients with hyperlipidemia and impaired inflammatory status.

The temperature of cities continues to increase because of the heat island phenomenon and the undeniable climatic change. The observed high ambient temperatures intensify the energy problem of cities, deteriorates comfort conditions, put in danger the vulnerable population and amplify the pollution problems. To counterbalance the phenomenon, important mitigation technologies have been developed and proposed. Among them, technologies aiming to increase the albedo of cities and the use of vegetative - green roofs appear to be very promising, presenting a relatively high heat island mitigation potential. This paper aims to present the state of the art on both the above technologies, when applied in the city scale. Tenths of published studies have been analysed. Most of the available data are based on simulation studies using mesoscale modeling techniques while important data are available from the existing experimental studies. When a global increase of the city's albedo is considered, the expected mean decrease of the average ambient temperature is close to 0.3. K per 0.1 rise of the albedo, while the corresponding average decrease of the peak ambient temperature is close to 0.9. K. When only cool roofs are considered, the analysis of the existing data shows that the expected depression rate of the average urban ambient temperature varies between 0.1 and 0.33. K per 0.1 increase of the roofs albedo with a mean value close to 0.2. K. As it concerns green roofs, existing simulation studies show that when applied on a city scale, they may reduce the average ambient temperature between 0.3 and 3. K. Detailed analysis of many studies reporting a comparison of the mitigation potential of both technologies has permitted the definition of the limits, the boundaries and the conditions under which the considered technologies reach their better performance, in a synthetic way. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

A cheap and fast construction of both enantiomers of substituted succinimides is reported. α- or β-amino acids, such as β-phenylalanine and α-tert-butyl aspartate, were found to be efficient organocatalysts for the reaction between α,α-disubstituted aldehydes and maleimides. Products containing contiguous quaternary-tertiary stereogenic centers are obtained in high to quantitative yields and excellent selectivities utilizing low catalyst loadings (0.5-3.5%). Finally, a one-pot efficient asymmetric synthesis of lactones is described. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Santamouris M.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Heat island phenomenon rises the temperature of cities, increases the energy demand for cooling and deteriorates comfort conditions in the urban environment. To counterbalance the impact of the phenomenon, important mitigation techniques have been proposed and developed. Pavements present a very high fraction of the urban areas and contribute highly to the development of heat island in cities. The use of cool pavements presenting substantially lower surface temperature and reduced sensible heat flux to the atmosphere, appears to be one of the most important proposed mitigation solutions. The present paper investigates and describes the actual state of the art on the field of cool pavements. The main thermal and optical parameters defining the thermal performance of pavements are analyzed. Almost all of the developed technologies, where data and results are available, are considered while emphasis is given on the presentation of reflective and permeable/water retentive pavements. The main technological achievements on both fields are reviewed while existing applications are described and performance data are given when available. The existing results clearly show that the mitigation and cooling potential of cool pavements is very significant and can highly contribute to decrease temperature on the urban environment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dafni U.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes | Year: 2011

This statistical primer presents the landmark analysis method, exploring its appropriate use and interpretation while recognizing its limitationsThis observational method is used for comparing time-to-event outcome between groups determined during study follow-upThe goal of the landmark method is to estimate in an unbiased way the time-to-event probabilities in each group conditional on the group membership of patients at a specific time point, the landmark timeThe need that led to its development, the impact of the method, and its pros and cons, along with available alternative approaches, are presentedSimulations explore its performance, using realistic parameters from arecent cardiovascular studyAs long as the limitations of the method are recognized and the interpretation of its results clearly reflect their "conditional" nature, landmark analysis, 25 years from its introduction, can still be of value. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Kassi E.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
BMC medicine | Year: 2011

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Currently, several different definitions of MetS exist, causing substantial confusion as to whether they identify the same individuals or represent a surrogate of risk factors. Recently, a number of other factors besides those traditionally used to define MetS that are also linked to the syndrome have been identified. In this review, we critically consider existing definitions and evolving information, and conclude that there is still a need to develop uniform criteria to define MetS, so as to enable comparisons between different studies and to better identify patients at risk. As the application of the MetS model has not been fully validated in children and adolescents as yet, and because of its alarmingly increasing prevalence in this population, we suggest that diagnosis, prevention and treatment in this age group should better focus on established risk factors rather than the diagnosis of MetS.

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