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Astana, Kazakhstan

Ouyang G.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Fang X.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Lu H.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | Zhou X.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | And 4 more authors.
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2013

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the vector of huanglongbing, a destructive citrus disease worldwide. Horticultural mineral oils (HMOs) are commonly used for management of D. citri. In the past, repellency of HMOs against D. citri was reported. The primary objective of this study was to determine the repellency characteristics of 5 HMOs against D. citri. The settling and oviposition responses of D. citri to aqueous emulsions of the HMOs were assessed by bioassay. The relationships between repellency and carbon number distribution, as well as the emulsifying efficiency of each HMO were analyzed. The results showed that the various HMOs had significantly different behavioral repellent effects against D. citri. Correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient indicated that the repellent effects of the HMOs against D. citri were significantly correlated with the mass percentages of C22, C23 and C24, but not with their emulsifying efficiencies. These results can help to select and develop HMOs with high repellencies for D. citri control. The mechanism of HMO repellency against D. citri is unclear and needs to be investigated. Source

Aitzhanova A.,National Analytical Center | Iskaliyeva A.,National Analytical Center | Krishnaswamy V.,National Analytical Center | Makauskas D.,National Analytical Center | And 3 more authors.
Energy Economics | Year: 2015

This study presents a practical approach to oil wealth management by bringing together various dimensions (oil production and sustainability of oil reserves, impact on the economy and the balance of trade, and the impact on the fiscal balance, government debt, and the national oil fund) within a long-term planning framework. The study provides a quantitative depiction of the above dimensions to 2050 for the case of Kazakhstan where the country's oil output has grown from about 0.6. million barrels/day (mb/d) in the late 1990s to 1.8 (mb/d) in 2013, and it is expected to reach a peak of 3.5. mb/d by 2035. The analysis of this study indicates that within the limits of proven oil reserves, Kazakhstan's oil production capacity would collapse to negligible amounts after the peak period of 2035. This envisaged scenario will have undesirable impacts on the economy, balance of trade and fiscal balance both prior and after 2035. To avoid these erratic impacts, the study examines an alternative "conservative" production scenario that would enable the country to maintain its level of oil production until 2050, and to manage better the transition to a non-oil economy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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