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Kirillova I.V.,National Alliance of Shidlovskiy Ice Age | Zanina O.G.,Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science | Chernova O.F.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Lapteva E.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary Research (United States) | Year: 2015

An incomplete carcass of an extinct bison, Bison ex gr. priscus, was discovered in 2012 in the mouth of the Rauchua River (69°30'N, 166°49'E), Chukotka. The carcass included the rump with two hind limbs, ribs, and large flap of hide from the abdomen and sides, several vertebrae, bones of the forelimbs and anterior autopodia, stomach with its contents, and wool. The limb bones are relatively gracile, which is unusual in bison, and a SEM study of the hair microstructure suggests higher insulating capacity than in extant members of the genus. Additionally, mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that the Rauchua bison belonged to a distinct and previously unidentified lineage of steppe bison. Two radiocarbon dates suggest a Holocene age for the bison: a traditional 14C date provided an estimate of 8030±70 14C yr BP (SPb-743) and an AMS radiocarbon date provided an age of 9497±92 14C yr BP (AA101271). These dates make this the youngest known bison from Chukotka. Analysis of stomach contents revealed a diet of herbaceous plants (meadow grasses and sedges) and shrubs, suggesting that the early Holocene vegetation near the mouth of the Rauchua River was similar to that of the present day: tundra-associated vegetation with undersized plants. © 2015 University of Washington. Source

Kirillova I.V.,National Alliance of Shidlovskiy Ice Age | Argant J.,Aix - Marseille University | Lapteva E.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Korona O.M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Mammoth feces from northern Yakutia and western Chukotka were investigated in a multidisciplinary study. Radiocarbon dating of the Yakutian mammoth dung yielded ca 42 ka BP and the age of the feces from Chukotka is older than 45 ka BP. The two sites are located about 15,000 km from each other and have a different geological setting. Most plant remains in the dung of both mammoths were grasses and sedges, with some other herbs and dwarf shrubs in addition. The pastures were situated in varying treeless shrubby landscapes: herb-grass associations of meadows, wormwood and shrub biotopes on slopes, in valleys and at watersheds. Besides plant remains and hairs of large herbivore mammals, the feces also contained feathers of Anseriformes, fragments of beetles and flies, ephippia of Cladocera, diatoms, remains of testate amoebae and ascospores of coprophilous fungi from pasture cenoses. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

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