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Odek W.O.,University of Manitoba | Githuka G.N.,National AIDS STI Control Programme NASCOP | Avery L.,University of Manitoba | Njoroge P.K.,University of Nairobi | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: The high burden of HIV infections among female sex workers (FSW) in sub-Saharan Africa has been long recognised, but effective preventive interventions have largely not been taken to scale. We undertook a national geographical mapping exercise in 2011/2012 to assess the locations and population size of FSW in Kenya, to facilitate targeted HIV prevention services for this population. Methods and Findings: We used a geographical mapping approach, consisting of interviews with secondary key informants to identify "hot" spots frequented by FSW, their operational dynamics and the estimated numbers of FSW in those spots. This was followed by validation of the estimates through interviews with FSW at each spot identified. The mapping covered Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya, and 50 other major urban centres. In total, 11,609 secondary key informant interviews were conducted to identify FSW spots. Further, a total of 6,360 FSW were interviewed for spot validation purposes. A total of 10,670 spots where FSW congregate were identified. The estimated FSW population in all the towns mapped was 103,298 (range 77,878 to 128, 717). Size estimates in the towns mapped were extended to smaller towns that were not mapped, using a statistical model. The national urban FSW population estimate was 138,420 (range 107, 552 to 169, 288), covering all towns of over 5,000 population. We estimated that approximately 5% of the urban female population of reproductive age in Kenya could be sex workers, which is consistent with previous estimates from other sub-Saharan African countries. Conclusions: This study provides the first national level data on the size of the FSW population in Kenya. These data can be used to enhance HIV prevention programme planning and implementation for FSW, to form the basis for impact evaluations, and to improve programme coverage by directing efforts to locations with the greatest need. © 2014 Odek et al. Source


McKinnon L.R.,University of Nairobi | McKinnon L.R.,University of Toronto | McKinnon L.R.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Izulla P.,University of Nairobi | And 16 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2015

With two million new HIV infections annually, ongoing investigations of risk factors for HIV acquisition is critical to guide ongoing HIV prevention efforts. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of HIV uninfected female sex workers enrolled at an HIV prevention clinic in Nairobi (n = 1640). In the initially HIV uninfected cohort (70 %), we observed 34 HIV infections during 1514 person-years of follow-up, i.e. an annual incidence of 2.2 % (95 % CI 1.6–3.1 %). In multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard analysis, HIV acquisition was associated with a shorter baseline duration of sex work (aHR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.63–0.91), minimum charge/sex act (aHR 2.74, 0.82–9.15, for low vs. intermediate; aHR 5.70, 1.96–16.59, for high vs. intermediate), N. gonorrhoeae infection (aAHR 5.89, 95 % CI 2.03–17.08), sex with casual clients during menses (aHR 6.19, 95 % CI 2.58–14.84), Depo Provera use (aHR 5.12, 95 % CI 1.98–13.22), and estimated number of annual unprotected regular partner contacts (aHR 1.004, 95 % CI 1.001–1.006). Risk profiling based on baseline predictors suggested that substantial heterogeneity in HIV risk is evident, even within a key population. These data highlight several risk factors for HIV acquisition that could help to re-focus HIV prevention messages. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Kaiser R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Bunnell R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hightower A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Kim A.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: In order to inform prevention programming, we analyzed HIV discordance and concordance within couples in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007. Methods: KAIS was a nationally representative population-based sero-survey that examined demographic and behavioral indicators and serologic testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in 15,853 consenting adults aged 15-64 years. We analyzed interview and blood testing data at the sexual partnership level from married or cohabitating couples. Multivariable regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with HIV discordant and concordant status. Results: Of 3256 couples identified in the survey, 2748 (84.4%) had interview and blood testing data. Overall, 3.8% of couples were concordantly infected with HIV, and in 5.8% one partner was infected, translating to 338,000 discordant couples in Kenya. In 83.6% of HIV-infected Kenyans living in married or cohabitating couples neither partner knew their HIV status. Factors independently associated with HIV-discordance included young age in women (AOR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8; p<0.0001), increasing number of lifetime sexual partners in women (AOR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-1.8; p<0.0001), HSV-2 infection in either or both partners (AOR 4.1, 95% CI: 2.3-7.2; p<0.0001), and lack of male circumcision (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.5; p = 0.032). Independent factors for HIV-concordance included HSV-2 infection in both partners (AOR 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3-18.7; p = 0.001) and lack of male circumcision (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3; p = 0.043). Conclusions: Couple prevention interventions should begin early in relationships and include mutual knowledge of HIV status, reduction of outside sexual partners, and promotion of male circumcision among HIV-uninfected men. Mechanisms for effective prevention or suppression of HSV-2 infection are also needed. Source


Cherutich P.,National AIDS STI Control Programme NASCOP | Kaiser R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Galbraith J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Williamson J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: We analyzed HIV testing rates, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, and predictors of testing in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007. Methods: KAIS was a nationally representative sero-survey that included demographic and behavioral indicators and testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in the population aged 15-64 years. We used gender-specific multivariable regression models to identify factors independently associated with HIV testing in sexually active persons. Results: Of 19,840 eligible persons, 80% consented to interviews and blood specimen collection. National HIV prevalence was 7.1% (95% CI 6.5-7.7). Among ever sexually active persons, 27.4% (95% CI 25.6-29.2) of men and 44.2% (95% CI 42.5-46.0) of women reported previous HIV testing. Among HIV-infected persons, 83.6% (95% CI 76.2-91.0) were unaware of their HIV infection. Among sexually active women aged 15-49 years, 48.7% (95% CI 46.8-50.6) had their last HIV test during antenatal care (ANC). In multivariable analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for ever HIV testing in women ≥35 versus 15-19 years was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.3; p<0.0001). Other independent associations with ever HIV testing included urban residence (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0; p = 0.0005, women only), highest wealth index versus the four lower quintiles combined (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5; p = 0.0006, men only), and an increasing testing trend with higher levels of education. Missed opportunities for testing were identified during general or pregnancy-specific contacts with health facilities; 89% of adults said they would participate in home-based HIV testing. Conclusions: The vast majority of HIV-infected persons in Kenya are unaware of their HIV status, posing a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts. New approaches to HIV testing provision and education, including home-based testing, may increase coverage. Targeted interventions should involve sexually active men, sexually active women without access to ANC, and rural and disadvantaged populations. Source

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