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Thilakavathi S.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | Boopathi K.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | Kumar C.P.G.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | Santhakumar A.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | And 7 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, a large-scale HIV prevention program, using peer-mediated approaches and STI services, was implemented for high-risk groups for HIV in six states in India. This paper describes the assessment of the program among female sex workers (FSWs) in the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Methods. An analytical framework based on the Avahan impact evaluation design was used. Routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional biological and behavioural surveys among FSWs in 2006 (Round 1) and 2009 (Round 2) and quality assessments of clinical services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were used to assess trends in coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs, HIV and their association with program exposure. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine trends in intermediate outcomes and their associations with intervention exposure. Results: The Avahan program in Tamil Nadu was scaled up and achieved monthly reported coverage of 79% within four years of implementation. The cross-sectional survey data showed an increasing proportion of FSWs being reached by Avahan, 54% in Round 1 and 86% in Round 2 [AOR=4.7;p=0.001]. Quality assessments of STI clinical services showed consistent improvement in quality scores (3.0 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2008). Condom distribution by the program rose to cover all estimated commercial sex acts. Reported consistent condom use increased between Round 1 and Round 2 with occasional (72% to 93%; AOR=5.5; p=0.001) and regular clients (68% to 89%; AOR=4.3; p=0.001) while reactive syphilis serology declined significantly (9.7% to 2.2% AOR=0.2; p=0.001). HIV prevalence remained stable at 6.1% between rounds. There was a strong association between Avahan exposure and consistent condom use with commercial clients; however no association was seen with declines in STIs. Conclusions: The Avahan program in Tamil Nadu achieved high coverage of FSWs, resulting in outcomes of improved condom use, declining syphilis and stabilizing HIV prevalence. These expected outcomes following the program logic model and declining HIV prevalence among general population groups suggest potential impact of high risk group interventions on HIV epidemic in Tamil Nadu. © 2011 Thilakavathi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ghate M.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR
The Indian journal of medical research | Year: 2013

The treatment outcomes under national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme are being evaluated in some ART centres in the country. We carried out this study to analyze the impact of first line antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected patients attending a free ART roll out national programme clinic in Pune, India. Antiretroviral naive HIV infected patients attending the clinic between December 2005 and April 2008 and followed up till March 31, 2011 were included in the analysis. The enrolment and follow up of these patients were done as per the national guidelines. Viral load estimations were done in a subset of patients. results: One hundred and forty two patients with median CD4 count of 109 cells/μl (IQR: 60-160) were initiated on treatment. The median follow up was 44 months (IQR: 37-53.3 months). Survival analysis showed that the probability of being alive at the end of 5 years was 85 per cent. Overall increase in the median CD4 count was statistically significant (P<0.001). It was significant in patients with >95 per cent adherence (P<0.001). In 14 per cent patients, the absolute CD4 count did not increase by 100 or more cells/μl at the end of 12 months. Viral load estimation in a subset of 68 patients showed undetectable levels in 61 (89.7%) patients after a median duration of 46 months (IQR: 38.3-54.8). The first line treatment was effective in patients attending the programme clinic. The adherence level influenced immunological and virological outcomes of patients. Source

Thio C.L.,Johns Hopkins University | Smeaton L.,Harvard University | Saulynas M.,Johns Hopkins University | Hwang H.,Johns Hopkins University | And 11 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To understand the HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) epidemic from a global perspective by clinically and virologically characterizing these viruses at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in a multinational cohort. METHODS AND DESIGN: HIV-infected patients enrolled in two international studies were classified as HIV-HBV coinfected or HIV monoinfected prior to ART. HIV-HBV coinfected patients were tested for HBV characteristics, hepatitis D virus (HDV), a novel noninvasive marker of liver disease, and drug-resistant HBV. Comparisons between discrete covariates used χ or Fisher's exact tests (and Jonchkheere-Terpstra for trend tests), whereas continuous covariates were compared using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. RESULTS: Of the 2105 HIV-infected patients from 11 countries, the median age was 34 years and 63% were black. The 115 HIV-HBV coinfected patients had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase values, lower BMI, and lower CD4 T-cell counts than HIV monoinfected patients (median 159 and 137cells/μl, respectively, P=0.04). In the coinfected patients, 49.6% had HBeAg-negative HBV, 60.2% had genotype A HBV, and 13% were HDV positive. Of the HBeAg-negative patients, 66% had HBV DNA 2000IU/ml or less compared to 5.2% of the HBeAg-positive individuals. Drug-resistant HBV was not detected. CONCLUSION: Screening for HBV in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings is important because it is associated with lower CD4 T-cell counts. In settings in which HBV DNA is not available, HBeAg may be useful to assess the need for HBV treatment. Screening for drug-resistant HBV is not needed prior to starting ART in settings in which this study was conducted. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Paranjape R.S.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR | Challacombe S.J.,Kings College London
Oral Diseases | Year: 2016

The first cases of HIV infection in India were detected in 1986 among female sex workers in Chennai. A rapid increase followed in many states. The current national prevalence is about 0.26% compared with a global average of 0.2%, but the figure in most high-risk groups including female sex workers is much higher (up to 7%). New HIV infections reached a peak in 1998 and have since declined by 60%, although the total number of HIV-positive persons remains stable at 2.1 million, largely probably due to the increased life expectancy following antiretroviral therapy. The Indian epidemic is characterized by low levels in the general population and elevated concentrations among high-risk groups. Transmission is mainly heterosexually driven, with differential burdens across the states. The four main drivers of HIV infection in India differ in order from those elsewhere in the world and are commercial sex work, general heterosexual intercourse, injecting drug use and unprotected anal sex between men who have sex with men. There are distinct differences from state to state in the prevalence of HIV, with some around the national norm of 0.21% but others with over 1% infected. India has embarked on a targeted HIV prevention strategy in recent years which is strongly associated with a fall in infection rate in both low- and high-risk groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Pandey S.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR | Tripathy S.,Central Jalma Institute for Leprosy and other Mycobacterial Diseases | Paranjape R.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses | Year: 2013

An increasing number of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) all over the world has necessitated being vigilant about new recombinants. Since the first report of a recombinant virus with an A1/C mosaic in 1998 more and more B/C and A/C recombinant viruses are being reported from India. Here we report the identification and characterization of a unique HIV-1 A1/C recombinant circulating in Western India. Analysis of the full-length genome using RIP, SimPlot, and jpHMM@Gobics has confirmed its mosaic structure with insertion of subtype A1 in the backbone of subtype C at three positions: gag-pol (1973±15-2617±47), pol-vif (4879±37- 5582±32), and gp41 (8437±106-8811±8); however, RIP and SimPlot showed one more small insertion in integrase (4343-4519). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the recombinant virus has an insertion of clade A1 in the backbone of subtype C, which has come from Indian subtype C. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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