National AIDS Research Institute ICMR

Bhosari, India

National AIDS Research Institute ICMR

Bhosari, India
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Grinsztejn B.,Institute Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas | Hosseinipour M.C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Ribaudo H.J.,Harvard University | Swindells S.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 26 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Use of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-1 infection has decreased AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and prevents sexual transmission of HIV-1. However, the best time to initiate antiretroviral treatment to reduce progression of HIV-1 infection or non-AIDS clinical events is unknown. We reported previously that early antiretroviral treatment reduced HIV-1 transmission by 96%. We aimed to compare the effects of early and delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes. Methods: The HPTN 052 trial is a randomised controlled trial done at 13 sites in nine countries. We enrolled HIV-1-serodiscordant couples to the study and randomly allocated them to either early or delayed antiretroviral treatment by use of permuted block randomisation, stratified by site. Random assignment was unblinded. The HIV-1-infected member of every couple initiated antiretroviral treatment either on entry into the study (early treatment group) or after a decline in CD4 count or with onset of an AIDS-related illness (delayed treatment group). Primary events were AIDS clinical events (WHO stage 4 HIV-1 disease, tuberculosis, and severe bacterial infections) and the following serious medical conditions unrelated to AIDS: serious cardiovascular or vascular disease, serious liver disease, end-stage renal disease, new-onset diabetes mellitus, and non-AIDS malignant disease. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00074581. Findings: 1763 people with HIV-1 infection and a serodiscordant partner were enrolled in the study; 886 were assigned early antiretroviral treatment and 877 to the delayed treatment group (two individuals were excluded from this group after randomisation). Median CD4 counts at randomisation were 442 (IQR 373-522) cells per μL in patients assigned to the early treatment group and 428 (357-522) cells per μL in those allocated delayed antiretroviral treatment. In the delayed group, antiretroviral treatment was initiated at a median CD4 count of 230 (IQR 197-249) cells per μL. Primary clinical events were reported in 57 individuals assigned to early treatment initiation versus 77 people allocated to delayed antiretroviral treatment (hazard ratio 0·73, 95% CI 0·52-1·03; p=0·074). New-onset AIDS events were recorded in 40 participants assigned to early antiretroviral treatment versus 61 allocated delayed initiation (0·64, 0·43-0·96; p=0·031), tuberculosis developed in 17 versus 34 patients, respectively (0·49, 0·28-0·89, p=0·018), and primary non-AIDS events were rare (12 in the early group vs nine with delayed treatment). In total, 498 primary and secondary outcomes occurred in the early treatment group (incidence 24·9 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 22·5-27·5) versus 585 in the delayed treatment group (29·2 per 100 person-years, 26·5-32·1; p=0·025). 26 people died, 11 who were allocated to early antiretroviral treatment and 15 who were assigned to the delayed treatment group. Interpretation: Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment delayed the time to AIDS events and decreased the incidence of primary and secondary outcomes. The clinical benefits recorded, combined with the striking reduction in HIV-1 transmission risk previously reported, provides strong support for earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment. Funding: US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Paranjape R.S.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR | Challacombe S.J.,King's College London
Oral Diseases | Year: 2016

The first cases of HIV infection in India were detected in 1986 among female sex workers in Chennai. A rapid increase followed in many states. The current national prevalence is about 0.26% compared with a global average of 0.2%, but the figure in most high-risk groups including female sex workers is much higher (up to 7%). New HIV infections reached a peak in 1998 and have since declined by 60%, although the total number of HIV-positive persons remains stable at 2.1 million, largely probably due to the increased life expectancy following antiretroviral therapy. The Indian epidemic is characterized by low levels in the general population and elevated concentrations among high-risk groups. Transmission is mainly heterosexually driven, with differential burdens across the states. The four main drivers of HIV infection in India differ in order from those elsewhere in the world and are commercial sex work, general heterosexual intercourse, injecting drug use and unprotected anal sex between men who have sex with men. There are distinct differences from state to state in the prevalence of HIV, with some around the national norm of 0.21% but others with over 1% infected. India has embarked on a targeted HIV prevention strategy in recent years which is strongly associated with a fall in infection rate in both low- and high-risk groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


PubMed | National AIDS Research Institute ICMR and King's College London
Type: | Journal: Oral diseases | Year: 2016

The first cases of HIV infection in India were detected in 1986 among female sex workers in Chennai. A rapid increase followed in many states. The current national prevalence is about 0.26% compared with a global average of 0.2%, but the figure in most high-risk groups including female sex workers is much higher (up to 7%). New HIV infections reached a peak in 1998 and have since declined by 60%, although the total number of HIV-positive persons remains stable at 2.1million, largely probably due to the increased life expectancy following antiretroviral therapy. The Indian epidemic is characterized by low levels in the general population and elevated concentrations among high-risk groups. Transmission is mainly heterosexually driven, with differential burdens across the states. The four main drivers of HIV infection in India differ in order from those elsewhere in the world and are commercial sex work, general heterosexual intercourse, injecting drug use and unprotected anal sex between men who have sex with men. There are distinct differences from state to state in the prevalence of HIV, with some around the national norm of 0.21% but others with over 1% infected. India has embarked on a targeted HIV prevention strategy in recent years which is strongly associated with a fall in infection rate in both low- and high-risk groups.


Thio C.L.,Johns Hopkins University | Smeaton L.,Harvard University | Saulynas M.,Johns Hopkins University | Hwang H.,Johns Hopkins University | And 11 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To understand the HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) epidemic from a global perspective by clinically and virologically characterizing these viruses at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in a multinational cohort. METHODS AND DESIGN: HIV-infected patients enrolled in two international studies were classified as HIV-HBV coinfected or HIV monoinfected prior to ART. HIV-HBV coinfected patients were tested for HBV characteristics, hepatitis D virus (HDV), a novel noninvasive marker of liver disease, and drug-resistant HBV. Comparisons between discrete covariates used χ or Fisher's exact tests (and Jonchkheere-Terpstra for trend tests), whereas continuous covariates were compared using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. RESULTS: Of the 2105 HIV-infected patients from 11 countries, the median age was 34 years and 63% were black. The 115 HIV-HBV coinfected patients had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase values, lower BMI, and lower CD4 T-cell counts than HIV monoinfected patients (median 159 and 137cells/μl, respectively, P=0.04). In the coinfected patients, 49.6% had HBeAg-negative HBV, 60.2% had genotype A HBV, and 13% were HDV positive. Of the HBeAg-negative patients, 66% had HBV DNA 2000IU/ml or less compared to 5.2% of the HBeAg-positive individuals. Drug-resistant HBV was not detected. CONCLUSION: Screening for HBV in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings is important because it is associated with lower CD4 T-cell counts. In settings in which HBV DNA is not available, HBeAg may be useful to assess the need for HBV treatment. Screening for drug-resistant HBV is not needed prior to starting ART in settings in which this study was conducted. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Guha M.,Tata Institute of Social Sciences | Baschieri A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Bharat S.,Tata Institute of Social Sciences | Bhatnagar T.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2012

Background: Empowering sex workers to mobilise and influence the structural context that obstructs risk reduction efforts is now seen an essential component of successful HIV prevention programmes. However, success depends on local programme environments and history. Methods: The authors analysed data from the Integrated Behavioural and Biological Assessment Round I cross-sectional survey among female sex workers in Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. The authors used propensity score matching to estimate the impact of participation in intervention activities on reduction of risk (consistent condom use) and vulnerability (perceived collective efficacy and community support). Results: Background levels of risk and vulnerability as well as intervention impact varied widely across the different settings. The effect size ATT of attending meetings/trainings on consistent condom use was as high as 21% in Tamil Nadu (outside of Chennai) where overall use was lowest at 51%. Overall, levels of perceived collective efficacy were low at the time of the survey; perceived community support was high in Tamil Nadu and especially in Chennai (93%) contrasting with 33% in Mumbai. Consistent with previous research, the context of Mumbai seems least conducive to vulnerability reduction, yet self-help groups had a significant impact on consistent condom use (ATT=10%) and were significantly associated with higher collective efficacy (ATT=31%). Conclusions: Significant risk reduction can be achieved by large-scale female sex worker interventions, but the impact depends on the history of programming, the complexity of the context in which sex work happens and pre-existing levels of support sex workers perceive from their peers. Copyright Article author (or their employer) 2012.


Pandey S.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR | Tripathy S.,Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and other Mycobacterial Diseases | Paranjape R.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses | Year: 2013

An increasing number of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) all over the world has necessitated being vigilant about new recombinants. Since the first report of a recombinant virus with an A1/C mosaic in 1998 more and more B/C and A/C recombinant viruses are being reported from India. Here we report the identification and characterization of a unique HIV-1 A1/C recombinant circulating in Western India. Analysis of the full-length genome using RIP, SimPlot, and jpHMM@Gobics has confirmed its mosaic structure with insertion of subtype A1 in the backbone of subtype C at three positions: gag-pol (1973±15-2617±47), pol-vif (4879±37- 5582±32), and gp41 (8437±106-8811±8); however, RIP and SimPlot showed one more small insertion in integrase (4343-4519). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the recombinant virus has an insertion of clade A1 in the backbone of subtype C, which has come from Indian subtype C. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Pandey S.S.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR | Cherian S.,National Institute of Virology ICMR | Thakar M.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR | Paranjape R.S.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses | Year: 2016

Although HIV-1 epidemic in India is mainly driven by subtype C, subtype A has been reported for over two decades. This is the first comprehensive analysis of sequences of HIV-1 subtype A from India, based on the near full-length genome sequences of six different HIV-1 subtype A Indian isolates along with available partial gene sequences from India and global sequences. The phylogenetic analyses revealed the convergence of all Indian whole-genome sequences and majority of the partial gene sequences to a single node with the sequences most closely related to African sub-subtype A1. The presence of the signature motifs consistent with those observed in subtype A and CTL epitopes characterized specifically for subtype A1 were observed among the study sequences. Deletion of LY amino acid of LYPXnL motif of p6gag and one amino acid in V3 loop have been observed among the study isolates, which have also been observed in a few sequences from East Africa. Overall, the results are indicative of a monophyletic lineage or founder effect of the Indian epidemic due to sub-subtype A1 and supportive of a possible migration of subtype A1 into India from East Africa. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.


PubMed | National AIDS Research Institute ICMR and National Institute of Virology ICMR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: AIDS research and human retroviruses | Year: 2016

Although HIV-1 epidemic in India is mainly driven by subtype C, subtype A has been reported for over two decades. This is the first comprehensive analysis of sequences of HIV-1 subtype A from India, based on the near full-length genome sequences of six different HIV-1 subtype A Indian isolates along with available partial gene sequences from India and global sequences. The phylogenetic analyses revealed the convergence of all Indian whole-genome sequences and majority of the partial gene sequences to a single node with the sequences most closely related to African sub-subtype A1. The presence of the signature motifs consistent with those observed in subtype A and CTL epitopes characterized specifically for subtype A1 were observed among the study sequences. Deletion of LY amino acid of LYPXnL motif of p6gag and one amino acid in V3 loop have been observed among the study isolates, which have also been observed in a few sequences from East Africa. Overall, the results are indicative of a monophyletic lineage or founder effect of the Indian epidemic due to sub-subtype A1 and supportive of a possible migration of subtype A1 into India from East Africa.


Ghate M.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR
The Indian journal of medical research | Year: 2013

The treatment outcomes under national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme are being evaluated in some ART centres in the country. We carried out this study to analyze the impact of first line antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected patients attending a free ART roll out national programme clinic in Pune, India. Antiretroviral naive HIV infected patients attending the clinic between December 2005 and April 2008 and followed up till March 31, 2011 were included in the analysis. The enrolment and follow up of these patients were done as per the national guidelines. Viral load estimations were done in a subset of patients. results: One hundred and forty two patients with median CD4 count of 109 cells/μl (IQR: 60-160) were initiated on treatment. The median follow up was 44 months (IQR: 37-53.3 months). Survival analysis showed that the probability of being alive at the end of 5 years was 85 per cent. Overall increase in the median CD4 count was statistically significant (P<0.001). It was significant in patients with >95 per cent adherence (P<0.001). In 14 per cent patients, the absolute CD4 count did not increase by 100 or more cells/μl at the end of 12 months. Viral load estimation in a subset of 68 patients showed undetectable levels in 61 (89.7%) patients after a median duration of 46 months (IQR: 38.3-54.8). The first line treatment was effective in patients attending the programme clinic. The adherence level influenced immunological and virological outcomes of patients.


Shete A.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR | Thakar M.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR | Abraham P.R.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR | Paranjape R.,National AIDS Research Institute ICMR
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2010

The CD4+ T lymphocytes are the crucial cells in the cascade of events in forming immune response to the foreign antigen and hence monitoring the CD4+ T cell counts to understand the extent of immune deficiency is a common practice. CD4+ T cells are also the primary target cells for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hence CD4+ T lymphocyte count is the most important marker of immune dysfunction in HIV disease progression. The estimation of CD4+ T cell counts is used to decide the initiation of anti retroviral therapy (ART), to monitor the efficacy of ART and to start treatment for opportunistic infections (OIs). To develop the threshold levels of CD4+ T cell counts, data from western countries are being used in India. The CD4+ T cell counts are known to be influenced by race and environmental factors. Hence it is important to establish the reference ranges for the CD4+ T cell counts in the target population to understand the immune dysfunction. The information on the lower limits of the CD4+ T cells count is necessary to decide the initiation and monitoring of ART. The published data on the CD4+ T cells count in healthy Indian adult population have been reviewed, analyzed and discussed in this review article. The requirement of establishment of reference ranges in Indian population is discussed.

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