PubMed | National Institute of Medical Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, Christian Medical College and National AIDS Control Organization
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Uihakhoe chi | Year: 2016
The survival outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs have not been systematically evaluated at the state level in India. This retrospective study assessed the survival rates and factors associated with survival among adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Andhra Pradesh, India.The present study used data from 139 679 HIV patients aged 15 years on ART who were registered from 2007 to 2011 and were followed up through December 2013. The primary end point was death of the patient. Mortality densities (per 1000 person-years) were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore the factors associated with survival.The overall median follow-up time was 16.0 months (2.0 months for the deceased and 14.0 months for those lost to follow-up). Approximately 13.2% of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. Of those deaths, 56% occurred in the first three months. The crude mortality rate was 80.9 per 1000 person-years at risk. The CD4 count (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR],4.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.36 to 5.46 for <100 cells/mmThe study findings revealed that high mortality was observed within the first three months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had a higher risk of mortality. Expanded testing and counseling should be encouraged, with the goal of ensuring early enrollment into the program followed by the initiation of ART in HIV-infected patients.
Scale-up of a comprehensive harm reduction programme for people injecting opioids: Lessons from north-eastern India [Ampliación de un programa completo dirigido a reducir los daños entre las personas que se inyectan opiáceos: Lecciones desde el noreste de India]
Lalmuanpuii M.,Emmanuel Hospital Association |
Biangtung L.,Emmanuel Hospital Association |
Mishra R.K.,Emmanuel Hospital Association |
Reeve M.J.,University of Melbourne |
And 4 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013
Problem Harm reduction packages for people who inject illicit drugs, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are cost-effective but have not been scaled up globally. In the north-eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland, the epidemic of HIV infection is driven by the injection of illicit drugs, especially opioids. These states needed to scale up harm reduction programmes but faced difficulty doing so. Approach In 2004, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded Project ORCHID to scale up a harm reduction programme in Manipur and Nagaland. Local setting In 2003, an estimated 10 000 and 16 000 people were injecting drugs in Manipur and Nagaland, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection among people injecting drugs was 24.5% in Manipur and 8.4% in Nagaland. Relevant changes By 2012, the harm reduction programme had been scaled up to an average of 9011 monthly contacts outside clinics (80% of target); an average of 1709 monthly clinic visits (15% of target, well above the 5% monthly goal) and an average monthly distribution of needles and syringes of 16 each per programme participant. Opioid agonist maintenance treatment coverage was 13.7% and retention 6 months after enrolment was 63%. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for HIV-positive participants was 81%. Lessons learnt A harm reduction model consisting of community-owned, locally relevant innovations and business approaches can result in good harm reduction programme scale-up and influence harm reduction policy. Project ORCHID has influenced national harm reduction policy in India and contributed to the development of harm reduction guidelines.
PubMed | State Tuberculosis Office, National AIDS Control Organization, ESIC Medical College and PGIMSR, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of infection and public health | Year: 2016
Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively poorer. The current strategy for the management of TB among the HIV-positive pregnant women needs urgent review.
Guinness L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Vickerman P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Quayyum Z.,University of Aberdeen |
Foss A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
And 5 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2010
Aims To assess the cost-effectiveness of the CARE-SHAKTI harm reduction intervention for injecting drug users (IDUs) over a 3-year period, the impact on the cost-effectiveness of stopping after 3 years and how the cost-effectiveness might vary with baseline human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. Design Economic cost data were collected from the study site and combined with impact estimates derived from a dynamic mathematical model. Setting Dhaka, Bangladesh, where the HIV prevalence has remained low despite high-risk sexual and injecting behaviours, and growing HIV epidemics in neighbouring countries. Findings The cost per HIV infection prevented over the first 3 years was US$110.4 (33.1-182.3). The incremental cost-effectiveness of continuing the intervention for a further year, relative to stopping at the end of year 3, is US$97 if behaviour returns to pre-intervention patterns. When baseline IDU HIV prevalence is increased to 40%, the number of HIV infections averted is halved for the 3-year period and the cost per HIV infection prevented doubles to US$228. Conclusions The analysis confirms that harm reduction activities are cost-effective. Early intervention is more cost-effective than delaying activities, although this should not preclude later intervention. Starting harm reduction activities when IDU HIV prevalence reaches as high as 40% is still cost-effective. Continuing harm reduction activities once a project has matured is vital to sustaining its impact and cost-effectiveness. © 2009 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Shastri S.,Karnataka State AIDS Prevention Society |
Sathyanarayna S.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease The Union |
Nagaraja S.B.,Central TB Division |
Kumar A.M.V.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease The Union |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2013
Introduction: One important operational challenge facing antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in low- and middle-income countries is the loss to follow-up between diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and initiation of ART. This is a major obstacle to achieving universal access to ART. This study from Karnataka, India, tried to measure such losses by determining the number of HIV-positive individuals diagnosed, the number of them reaching ART centres, the number initiated on ART and the reasons for non-initiation of ART. Methods: A review of records routinely maintained under the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) was carried out in six districts of Karnataka. HIV-positive persons diagnosed during the months from January to June 2011 in 233 public HIV-testing sites were followed up until December 2011 based on the pre-ART registers. A chi-square test was used to assess statistical significance. Results: Of 2291 HIV-positive persons diagnosed (52% male; mean age of 35 years), 1829 (80%) reached ART centres. Of the latter, 1166 (64%) were eligible for ART, and 959 (82%) were initiated on treatment. Overall losses (attrition) on the road between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation were 669 (29%). Deaths, migration and not willing to go to the ART centres were cited as the main known reasons for not reaching ART centres. For ART-eligible individuals who did not initiate ART, the most common known reasons for non-initiation included dying before initiation of ART and not being willing to start ART. Conclusions: In a large state of India, eight in ten HIV-positive persons reached ART centres, and of those found ART eligible, 82% start treatment. Although this is an encouraging achievement, the programme needs to take further steps to improve the current performance by further reducing pre-ART attrition.We recommend online registering of diagnosed HIV-positive patients to track the patients more efficiently. Copyright: © 2013 Shastri S et al; licensee International AIDS Society.
Hsiao M.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute |
Hsiao M.,University of Toronto |
Malhotra A.,Virginia Commonwealth University |
Thakur J.S.,Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research |
And 5 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2013
Objectives: To quantify and describe the mechanism of road traffic injury (RTI) deaths in India. Design: We conducted a nationally representative mortality survey where at least two physicians coded each non-medical field staff's verbal autopsy reports. RTI mechanism data were extracted from the narrative section of these reports. Setting: 1.1 million homes in India. Participants: Over 122 000 deaths at all ages from 2001 to 2003. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Agespecific and sex-specific mortality rates, place and timing of death, modes of transportation and injuries sustained. Results: The 2299 RTI deaths in the survey correspond to an estimated 183 600 RTI deaths or about 2% of all deaths in 2005 nationally, of which 65% occurred in men between the ages 15 and 59 years. The age-adjusted mortality rate was greater in men than in women, in urban than in rural areas, and was notably higher than that estimated from the national police records. Pedestrians (68 000), motorcyclists (36 000) and other vulnerable road users (20 000) constituted 68% of RTI deaths (124 000) nationally. Among the study sample, the majority of all RTI deaths occurred at the scene of collision (1005/1733, 58%), within minutes of collision (883/1596, 55%), and/or involved a head injury (691/1124, 62%). Compared to non-pedestrian RTI deaths, about 55 000 (81%) of pedestrian deaths were associated with less education and living in poorer neighbourhoods. Conclusions: In India, RTIs cause a substantial number of deaths, particularly among pedestrians and other vulnerable road users. Interventions to prevent collisions and reduce injuries might address over half of the RTI deaths. Improved prehospital transport and hospital trauma care might address just over a third of the RTI deaths.
Mohapatra B.,Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College |
Warrell D.A.,University of Oxford |
Warrell D.A.,University of Melbourne |
Suraweera W.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute |
And 8 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011
Background: India has long been thought to have more snakebites than any other country. However, inadequate hospital-based reporting has resulted in estimates of total annual snakebite mortality ranging widely from about 1,300 to 50,000. We calculated direct estimates of snakebite mortality from a national mortality survey. Methods and Findings: We conducted a nationally representative study of 123,000 deaths from 6,671 randomly selected areas in 2001-03. Full-time, non-medical field workers interviewed living respondents about all deaths. The underlying causes were independently coded by two of 130 trained physicians. Discrepancies were resolved by anonymous reconciliation or, failing that, by adjudication. A total of 562 deaths (0.47% of total deaths) were assigned to snakebites. Snakebite deaths occurred mostly in rural areas (97%), were more common in males (59%) than females (41%), and peaked at ages 15-29 years (25%) and during the monsoon months of June to September. This proportion represents about 45,900 annual snakebite deaths nationally (99% CI 40,900 to 50,900) or an annual age-standardised rate of 4.1/100,000 (99% CI 3.6-4.5), with higher rates in rural areas (5.4/100,000; 99% CI 4.8-6.0), and with the highest state rate in Andhra Pradesh (6.2). Annual snakebite deaths were greatest in the states of Uttar Pradesh (8,700), Andhra Pradesh (5,200), and Bihar (4,500). Conclusions: Snakebite remains an underestimated cause of accidental death in modern India. Because a large proportion of global totals of snakebites arise from India, global snakebite totals might also be underestimated. Community education, appropriate training of medical staff and better distribution of antivenom, especially to the 13 states with the highest prevalence, could reduce snakebite deaths in India. © 2011 Mohapatra et al.
Dhingra N.,National AIDS Control Organization |
Dhingra N.,University of Toronto |
Jha P.,University of Toronto |
Sharma V.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi |
And 8 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010
National malaria death rates are difficult to assess because reliably diagnosed malaria is likely to be cured, and deaths in the community from undiagnosed malaria could be misattributed in retrospective enquiries to other febrile causes of death, or vice-versa. We aimed to estimate plausible ranges of malaria mortality in India, the most populous country where the disease remains common. Full-time non-medical field workers interviewed families or other respondents about each of 122 000 deaths during 2001-03 in 6671 randomly selected areas of India, obtaining a half-page narrative plus answers to specific questions about the severity and course of any fevers. Each field report was sent to two of 130 trained physicians, who independently coded underlying causes, with discrepancies resolved either via anonymous reconciliation or adjudication. Of all coded deaths at ages 1 month to 70 years, 2681 (3·6) of 75 342 were attributed to malaria. Of these, 2419 (90) were in rural areas and 2311 (86) were not in any health-care facility. Death rates attributed to malaria correlated geographically with local malaria transmission ratesderived independently from the Indian malaria control programme. The adjudicated results show 205 000 malaria deaths per year in India before age 70 years (55 000 in early childhood, 30 000 at ages 5-14 years, 120 000 at ages 15-69 years); 1·8 cumulative probability of death from malaria before age 70 years. Plausible lower and upper bounds (on the basis of only the initial coding) were 125 000-277 000. Malaria accounted for a substantial minority of about 1·3 million unattended rural fever deaths attributed to infectious diseases in people younger than 70 years. Despite uncertainty as to which unattended febrile deaths are from malaria, even the lower bound greatly exceeds the WHO estimate of only 15 000 malaria deaths per year in India (5000 early childhood, 10 000 thereafter). This low estimate should be reconsidered, as should the low WHO estimate of adult malaria deaths worldwide. US National Institutes of Health, Canadian Institute of Health Research, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research and National AIDS Control Organization
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care | Year: 2016
Hypersensitivity reaction to antiretroviral treatment (ART) poses potential threats in maintenance of treatment. Lamivudine (3TC), is rare to cause rash. We are reporting 23 cases of 3TC-induced rash.An observational study conducted in the antiretroviral treatment center of a tertiary care hospital of North India from Feb 2009-Dec 2013 to record 3TC-induced rash. These were then recommended to start ART without 3TC and were followed up at 1-, 2-, and at 4-week intervals to monitor the toxicity, if any, with alternate therapy.We observed 3TC-induced skin rash in 23 HIV-infected individuals (0.7%), out of 3213 HIV-infected individuals initiated on first line ART (zidovudine [ZDV]/tenofovir [TDF] + 3TC +nevirapine [NVP]/efavirenz [EFV] during the study period of 5 years [Feb 2009-Dec 2013]). The mean age of these 23 individuals was 37.5 12.8 (17-60) years. Lamivudine rash was more common in women than men (F = 19, M = 4), with an overall mean age of 37.5 12.8 (17-60) years. It was generalized, erythematous, maculopapular eruptions associated with intense itching with no associated mucosal involvement. Lamivudine was substituted with TDF in 19, didanosine (ddl) in 3 and abacavir (ABC) in 1 individual. Mean duration of follow-up is 11.1 12.8 (3-42) months. CD4 count was repeated at 3 months and showed significant improvement (P = 0.002).Lamivudine-induced rash was found at a frequency of 0.7%. The correct and early recognition that the rash is due to 3TC, would save unnecessary substitution to a different class of drugs.
Munshi S.U.,Virology Group |
Rewari B.B.,National AIDS Control Organization |
Bhavesh N.S.,Structural and Computational Biology Group |
Jameel S.,Virology Group
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Background:Although HIV causes immune deficiency by infection and depletion of immunocytes, metabolic alterations with clinical manifestations are also reported in HIV/AIDS patients. Here we aimed to profile metabolite changes in the plasma, urine, and saliva of HIV/AIDS patients, including those on anti-retroviral therapy (ART).Methods:Metabolic profiling of biofluids collected from treatment naïve HIV/AIDS patients and those receiving ART was done with solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy followed by statistical analysis and annotation.Results:In Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the NMR spectra, Principal Component 1 (PC1) alone accounted for 99.3%, 87.2% and 78.8% variations in plasma, urine, and saliva, respectively. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to generate three-component models, which showed plasma and urine to be better than saliva in discriminating between patients and healthy controls, and between ART-naïve patients and those receiving therapy. Twenty-six metabolites were differentially altered in any or two types of samples. Our results suggest that urinary Neopterin, and plasma Choline and Sarcosine could be used as metabolic biomarkers of HIV/AIDS infection. Pathway analysis revealed significant alternations in 12 metabolic pathways.Conclusions:This study catalogs differentially regulated metabolites in biofluids, which helped classify subjects as healthy controls, HIV/AIDS patients, and those on ART. It also underscores the importance of further studying the consequences of HIV infection on host metabolism and its implications for pathogenesis. © 2013 Munshi et al.