Time filter

Source Type

Sgaier S.K.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Ramakrishnan A.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Dhingra N.,National AIDS Control Organisation | Wadhwani A.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | And 8 more authors.
Health Affairs | Year: 2013

Developing countries face diminishing development aid and time-limited donor commitments that challenge the long-term sustainability of donor-funded programs to improve the health of local populations. Increasing country ownership of the programs is one solution. Transitioning managerial and financial responsibility for donorfunded programs to governments and local stakeholders represents a highly advanced form of country ownership, but there are few successful examples among large-scale programs. We present a transition framework and describe how it was used to transfer the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's HIV/AIDS prevention program, the Avahan program, to the Government of India. Essential features recommended for the transition of donor-funded programs to governments include early planning with the government, aligning donor program components with government structures and funding models prior to transition, building government capacity through active technical and management support, budgeting for adequate support during and after the transition, and dividing the transition into phases to allow time for adjustments and corrections. The transition of programs to governments is an important sustainability strategy for efforts to scale up HIV prevention programs to reach the populations most at risk. © 2013 Project HOPE- The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.


PubMed | MGM Institute of Health Sciences, Médecins Sans Frontières, Mumbai District AIDS Control Society MDACS, World Health Organisation Country Office for India and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a looming threat to tuberculosis control in India. However, no countrywide prevalence data are available. The burden of DR-TB in HIV-co-infected patients is likewise unknown. Undiagnosed and untreated DR-TB among HIV-infected patients is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess the prevalence of DR-TB (defined as resistance to any anti-TB drug) in patients attending public antiretroviral treatment (ART) centers in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults and children ART-center attendees. Smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility-testing (DST) against all first and second-line TB-drugs using phenotypic liquid culture (MGIT) were conducted on all presumptive tuberculosis patients. Analyses were performed to determine DR-TB prevalence and resistance patterns separately for new and previously treated, culture-positive TB-cases.Between March 2013 and January 2014, ART-center attendees were screened during 14135 visits, of whom 1724 had presumptive TB. Of 1724 attendees, 72 (4%) were smear-positive and 202 (12%) had a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall DR-TB was diagnosed in 68 (34%, 95% CI: 27%-40%) TB-patients. The proportions of DR-TB were 25% (29/114) and 44% (39/88) among new and previously treated cases respectively. The patterns of DR-TB were: 21% mono-resistant, 12% poly-resistant, 38% multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), 21% pre-extensively-drug-resistant (MDR-TB plus resistance to either a fluoroquinolone or second-line injectable), 6% extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) and 2% extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB plus resistance to any group-IV/V drug). Only previous history of TB was significantly associated with the diagnosis of DR-TB in multivariate models.The burden of DR-TB among HIV-infected patients attending public ART-centers in Mumbai was alarmingly high, likely representing ongoing transmission in the community and health facilities. These data highlight the need to promptly diagnose drug-resistance among all HIV-infected patients by systematically offering access to first and second-line DST to all patients with presumptive TB rather than presumptive DR-TB and tailor the treatment regimen based on the resistance patterns.


Rodrigues R.,Karolinska Institutet | Rodrigues R.,St Johns National Academy Of Health Science | Bogg L.,Karolinska Institutet | Bogg L.,Mälardalen University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2014

Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is critical to maintaining health and good clinical outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. To address poor treatment adherence, low-cost interventions using mobile communication technology are being studied. While there are some studies that show an effect of mobile phone reminders on adherence to ART, none has reported on the costs of such reminders for national AIDS programmes. This paper aims to study the costs of mobile phone reminder strategies (mHealth interventions) to support adherence in the context of India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Methods: The study was undertaken at two tertiary level teaching hospitals that implement the NACP in Karnataka state, South India. Costs for a mobile phone reminder application to support adherence, implemented at these sites (i.e. weekly calls, messages or both) were studied. Costs were collected based on the concept of avoidable costs specific to the application. The costs that were assessed were one-time costs and recurrent costs that included fixed and variable costs. A sequential procedure for costing was used. Costs were calculated at national-programme level, individual ART-centre level and individual patient level from the NACP's perspective. The assessed costs were pooled to obtain an annual cost per patient. The type of application, number of ART centres and number of patients on ART were varied in a sensitivity analysis of costs. Results: The Indian NACP would incur a cost of between 79 and 110 INR (USD 1.27 - 1.77) per patient per year, based on the type of reminder, the number of patients on ART and the number of functioning ART centres. The total programme costs for a scaleup of the mHealth intervention to reach the one million patients expected to be on treatment by 2017 is estimated to be 0.36% of the total five-year national-programme budget. Conclusions: The cost of the mHealth intervention for ART-adherence support in the context of the Indian NACP is low and is facilitated by the low cost of mobile communication in the country. Extending the use of mobile communication applications beyond adherence support under the national programme could be done relatively inexpensively. © 2014 Rodrigues R et al; licensee International AIDS Society.


Gaffey M.F.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | Venkatesh S.,National AIDS Control Organisation | Dhingra N.,National AIDS Control Organisation | Khera A.,Ministry of Health and Family Welfare | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Heterosexual transmission of HIV in India is driven by the male use of female sex workers (FSW), but few studies have examined the factors associated with using FSW. This nationally representative study examined the prevalence and correlates of FSW use among 31,040 men aged 15-49 years in India in 2006. Nationally, about 4% of men used FSW in the previous year, representing about 8.5 million FSW clients. Unmarried men were far more likely than married men to use FSW overall (PR = 8.0), but less likely than married men to use FSW among those reporting at least one non-regular partner (PR = 0.8). More than half of all FSW clients were married. FSW use was higher among men in the high-HIV states than in the low-HIV states (PR = 2.7), and half of all FSW clients lived in the high-HIV states. The risk of FSW use rose sharply with increasing number of non-regular partners in the past year. Given the large number of men using FSW, interventions for the much smaller number of FSW remains the most efficient strategy for curbing heterosexual HIV transmission in India. © 2011 Gaffey et al.


Deshmukh R.,National AIDS Control Organisation | Deshmukh R.,World Health Organization | Shah A.,Ministry of Health and Family Welfare | Shah A.,World Health Organization | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis | Year: 2016

India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Isaakidis P.,Médecins Sans Frontières | Das M.,Médecins Sans Frontières | Kumar A.M.V.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease The Union | Peskett C.,Médecins Sans Frontières | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a looming threat to tuberculosis control in India. However, no countrywide prevalence data are available. The burden of DR-TB in HIV-co-infected patients is likewise unknown. Undiagnosed and untreated DR-TB among HIV-infected patients is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess the prevalence of DR-TB (defined as resistance to any anti-TB drug) in patients attending public antiretroviral treatment (ART) centers in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults and children ART-center attendees. Smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility-testing (DST) against all first and second-line TB-drugs using phenotypic liquid culture (MGIT) were conducted on all presumptive tuberculosis patients. Analyses were performed to determine DR-TB prevalence and resistance patterns separately for new and previously treated, culture-positive TB-cases.Results: Between March 2013 and January 2014, ART-center attendees were screened during 14135 visits, of whom 1724 had presumptive TB. Of 1724 attendees, 72 (4%) were smear-positive and 202 (12%) had a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall DR-TB was diagnosed in 68 (34%, 95% CI: 27%-40%) TB-patients. The proportions of DR-TB were 25% (29/114) and 44% (39/88) among new and previously treated cases respectively. The patterns of DR-TB were: 21% mono-resistant, 12% poly-resistant, 38% multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), 21% pre-extensively-drug-resistant (MDR-TB plus resistance to either a fluoroquinolone or second-line injectable), 6% extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) and 2% extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB plus resistance to any group-IV/V drug). Only previous history of TB was significantly associated with the diagnosis of DR-TB in multivariate models.Conclusion: The burden of DR-TB among HIV-infected patients attending public ART-centers in Mumbai was alarmingly high, likely representing ongoing transmission in the community and health facilities. These data highlight the need to promptly diagnose drug-resistance among all HIV-infected patients by systematically offering access to first and second-line DST to all patients with 'presumptive TB' rather than 'presumptive DR-TB' and tailor the treatment regimen based on the resistance patterns. © 2014 Isaakidis et al.


Mehta S.H.,Johns Hopkins University | Lucas G.M.,Johns Hopkins University | Solomon S.,Yr Gaitonde Center For Aids Research And Education | Srikrishnan A.K.,Yr Gaitonde Center For Aids Research And Education | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background. We characterize the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care continuum for men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons who inject drugs (PWID) across India. Methods. We recruited 12 022 MSM and 14 481 PWID across 26 Indian cities, using respondent-driven sampling (September 2012 to December 2013). Participants were aged >18 years and either self-identified as male and reported sex with a man in the prior year (MSM) or reported injection drug use in the prior 2 years (PWID). Correlates of awareness of HIV-positive status were characterized using multilevel logistic regression. Results. A total of 1146 MSM were HIV infected, of whom a median of 30% were aware of their HIV-positive status, 23% were linked to care, 22% were retained before antiretroviral therapy (ART), 16% had started ART, 16% were currently receiving ART, and 10% had suppressed viral loads. There was site variability (awareness range, 0%-90%; suppressed viral load range, 0%-58%). A total of 2906 PWID were HIV infected, of whom a median of 41% were aware, 36% were linked to care, 31% were retained before ART, 20% had started ART, 18% were currently receiving ART, and 15% had suppressed viral loads. Similar site variability was observed (awareness range: 2%-93%; suppressed viral load range: 0%-47%). Factors significantly associated with awareness were region, older age, being married (MSM) or female (PWID), use of other services (PWID), more lifetime sexual partners (MSM), and needle sharing (PWID). Ongoing injection drug use (PWID) and alcohol use (MSM) were associated with lower awareness. Conclusions. In this large sample, the major barrier to HIV care engagement was awareness of HIV-positive status. Efforts should focus on linking HIV testing to other essential services. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01686750. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


PubMed | Johns Hopkins University, Yr Gaitonde Center For Aids Research And Education, National AIDS Control Organisation and University of Maryland Baltimore County
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2015

We characterize the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care continuum for men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons who inject drugs (PWID) across India.We recruited 12 022 MSM and 14 481 PWID across 26 Indian cities, using respondent-driven sampling (September 2012 to December 2013). Participants were aged 18 years and either self-identified as male and reported sex with a man in the prior year (MSM) or reported injection drug use in the prior 2 years (PWID). Correlates of awareness of HIV-positive status were characterized using multilevel logistic regression.A total of 1146 MSM were HIV infected, of whom a median of 30% were aware of their HIV-positive status, 23% were linked to care, 22% were retained before antiretroviral therapy (ART), 16% had started ART, 16% were currently receiving ART, and 10% had suppressed viral loads. There was site variability (awareness range, 0%-90%; suppressed viral load range, 0%-58%). A total of 2906 PWID were HIV infected, of whom a median of 41% were aware, 36% were linked to care, 31% were retained before ART, 20% had started ART, 18% were currently receiving ART, and 15% had suppressed viral loads. Similar site variability was observed (awareness range: 2%-93%; suppressed viral load range: 0%-47%). Factors significantly associated with awareness were region, older age, being married (MSM) or female (PWID), use of other services (PWID), more lifetime sexual partners (MSM), and needle sharing (PWID). Ongoing injection drug use (PWID) and alcohol use (MSM) were associated with lower awareness.In this large sample, the major barrier to HIV care engagement was awareness of HIV-positive status. Efforts should focus on linking HIV testing to other essential services.NCT01686750.


Ganga Devi N.P.,National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis | Ajay K.M.V.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Palanivel C.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Sahu S.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2015

Background: Information on the follow-up of HIV-infected children enrolled into preantiretroviral therapy (Pre-ART) care under routine program settings is limited in India. Knowledge on the magnitude of loss to follow-up (LFU) and its reasons will help programs to retain children in HIV care. We aimed to assess the proportion of LFU among children in Pre-ART care and its associated factors. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the records of all HIV-infected children (aged <15 years) registered from 2005 to 2012 at an ART center, Madurai, South India. LFU during Pre-ART care was defined as having not visited the ART center within a year of registration. Results: Of 426 children enrolled in Pre-ART care, 211 (49%) were females and 301 (71%) were in the 5- to 14-year age group. At 1 year of registration, 348 (82%) were lost to follow-up. Of 348, 81 returned to care after 1 year of enrollment, whereas 267 (63% of all children) were permanently lost to follow-up. The proportion of LFU remained high from 2005 to 2012. WHO staging, CD4 count, and opportunistic infection were the significant factors associated with lost to follow-up on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: LFU was alarmingly high indicating poor clinical and programmatic monitoring among HIV-infected children enrolled in Pre-ART care. A system for active tracing of those missing a clinic appointment intensified supervision, and monitoring along with qualitative research is urgently needed. This will help to understand the exact reasons for LFU based on which effective interventions may be planned for reducing such losses. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Neogi U.,Karolinska Institutet | Gupta S.,St Johns Research Institute | Palchaudhuri R.,St Johns Research Institute | Rao S.D.,St Johns Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2014

Background: After the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, surveillance of primary drug resistance mutations (DRMs) among ART-naive individuals has important public health benefits. Although a highly successful national ART programme initiated by the Government of India exists, data on the prevalence of primary DRMs is scarce. The objective of the study is to estimate the prevalence, pattern and spectrum of population-based primary DRMs in therapy-naive HIV-1-infected individuals using clinical strains and database sequences from seven HIV prevalent states of India. Methods: Drug resistance genotyping was performed on either plasma RNA or whole-blood genomic DNA using a validated in-house method on 170 HIV-1-positive therapy-naive individuals. An additional 679 database-derived sequences from four other states were included in the analysis. The WHO-recommended list of mutations (SDRM-2009) for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were used for interpretation of DRMs. Trends of primary DRMs before and after the ART rollout were studied. Results: The overall prevalence of primary DRMs was 2.6% in the selected states of India when clinical isolates as well as database-derived sequences were combined. Common mutations included T69D and D67N (NRTI mutations), and L100I, K101E, K103N and Y181C (NNRTI mutations). There was a significant increase in NNRTI mutations over time. Conclusions: The overall DRM prevalence in this study was low. However, an increasing trend in primary NNRTI resistance has been observed during the past decade. Establishment of HIV drug resistance threshold surveillance will be useful in understanding further trends of transmitted resistance. ©2014 International Medical Press

Loading National AIDS Control Organisation collaborators
Loading National AIDS Control Organisation collaborators