National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center

Beijing, China

National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center

Beijing, China

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Liu Z.,China Agricultural University | Zhu J.,China Agricultural University | Cui Y.,China Agricultural University | Liang Y.,China Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease of wheat worldwide. Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) is a valuable genetic resource for improving disease resistance in common wheat. A powdery mildew resistance gene conferring resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolate E09 at the seedling and adult stages was identified in wild emmer accession IW170 introduced from Israel. An incomplete dominant gene, temporarily designated MlIW170, was responsible for the resistance. Through molecular marker and bulked segregant analyses of an F 2 population and F 3 families derived from a cross between susceptible durum wheat line 81086A and IW170, MlIW170 was located in the distal chromosome bin 2BS3-0. 84-1. 00 and flanked by SSR markers Xcfd238 and Xwmc243. MlIW170 co-segregated with Xcau516, an STS marker developed from RFLP marker Xwg516 that co-segregated with powdery mildew resistance gene Pm26 on 2BS. Four EST-STS markers, BE498358, BF201235, BQ160080, and BF146221, were integrated into the genetic linkage map of MlIW170. Three AFLP markers, XPaacMcac,XPagcMcta, XPaacMcag, and seven AFLP-derived SCAR markers, XcauG2, XcauG3, XcauG6, XcauG8, XcauG10, XcauG20, and XcauG25, were linked to MlIW170. XcauG3, a resistance gene analog (RGA)-like sequence, co-segregated with MlIW170. The non-glaucousness locus Iw1 was 18. 77 cM distal to MlIW170. By comparative genomics of wheat-Brachypodium-rice genomic co-linearity, four EST-STS markers, CJ658408, CJ945509, BQ169830, CJ945085, and one STS marker XP2430, were developed and MlIW170 was mapped in an 2. 69 cM interval that is co-linear with a 131 kb genomic region in Brachypodium and a 105 kb genomic region in rice. Four RGA-like sequences annotated in the orthologous Brachypodium genomic region could serve as chromosome landing target regions for map-based cloning of MlIW170. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Gao C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yao R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2013

Chlorantraniliprole, a new anthranilic diamide insecticide, has been commercialized in China since 2008 for controlling of several lepidopterans, including rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker. Chemical control of this pest has become difficult because of its resistance development to many conventional insecticides. To facilitate chlorantraniliprole-resistance monitoring, seedling dip bioassays were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to assess the susceptibility of 30 populations of C. suppressalis from seven provinces in China. The assays established a larval susceptibility baseline with LC 50 at 1.393 mg a.i/liter. The toxicity (LC50) of chlorantraniliprole against second-instar larvae of field populations ranged from 0.568 (SL12) to 13.547 (RA12) mg a.i/liter. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole were detected among different geographic populations, but no significant difference was observed between years for most populations except for populations from Dong'an, Cangnan, and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 1.0 to 9.7, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. Approximately, 13.3% of the populations exhibited low levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. These data are useful in future monitoring program for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of use of the insecticide. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Chen X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zeng J.,National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center | Zhai B.,Nanjing Agricultural University
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2015

The meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L., is a destructive migratory pest in the northern temperate zone. The outbreak mechanism of first-generation adults in China remains unclear. In 2008, the density of first-generation larvae was very low or even negligible in most sites in China. However, a great number of first-generation adults appeared unexpectedly in late July, and their offspring caused the most severe infestation on record. The present study aims to determine where the large influx of immigrant adults originated from and how this unprecedented population was established. Source areas were explored by trajectory analysis, and climatic patterns related to the population increase were investigated. Results showed that the outbreak population mainly immigrated from Northeast Mongolia and the Chita State of Russia, and the buildup of such a large population could be attributed to an exceptional northward migration of overwintered adults from North China to East Mongolia in the spring of 2007 and unusually favourable climatic conditions in the next two growth seasons. These results indicated that the population dynamics of meadow moth in Northeast Asia would be difficult to predict when only considering local climatic factors and population size within one country. International joint monitoring and information sharing related to this pest between China, Mongolia and Russia should be implemented. © 2015 ISB


Wu M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang S.,National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center | Yao R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important rice pest in China, and has evolved resistance to several classes of insecticides. Flubendiamide is a phthalic diamide insecticide that shows selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. The susceptibility of 40 field populations of C. suppressalis, collected in 2011 and 2012 in seven provinces of south-eastern China, to flubendiamide was determined through rice seedling dipping bioassay method. Of these 40 populations, seven populations that were seldom exposed to flubendiamide were used to set up the baseline sensitivity, and the LC50 value was 0.092 mg/L. Variation in susceptibility among the 40 field populations was high (34-fold). The range of mean lethal concentration (LC50) values in response to this chemical was between 0.032 mg/L (FS11) and 1.090 mg/L (JH12) across the populations. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to flubendiamide were detected among different geographic populations. There was no significant difference observed between years for most populations, except for populations from Jinhua and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 0.8 to 11.8, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. It was found that 16 of the 40 populations had some level of resistance. However, moderate level of resistance was discovered in only one population from JH12 from Zhejiang province (11.8-fold). Other 15 populations showed low level of resistance (5.1-9.3-fold) to flubendiamide. These data are useful in future monitoring programs for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of using flubendiamide. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.


Ban L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang S.,National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center | Huang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | He Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) is a major pest of cultivated rice. Pymetrozine, a pyridine azomethine compound, represents a novel insecticide with a selective activity against sucking pests. The resistance of L. striatellus to thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, chlorpyrifos, and pymetrozine in five field populations, collected from Jiangsu, Anhui, and Zhejiang in China, was monitored from 2009 to 2011 in laboratory. All the populations kept susceptible to minor resistance to thiamethoxam and nitenpyram in the 3 yr (0.6-to 2.2-fold and 0.8-to 3.8-fold, respectively), while the insects developed low to high level resistance to chlorpyrifos (9.7-to 76.1-fold). Three populations were all susceptible to pymetrozine (1.1-to 2.1-fold) in 2009, but the Wuxi and Yancheng populations developed low level resistance to pymetrozine (5.5-fold and 5.3-fold, respectively) in 2011. Meanwhile, the resistance level of the selected strain reared in laboratory increased by 1.0-fold after 12-generation selection with pymetrozine. The realized heritability (h2 ) of resistance at different selection stages was estimated as 0.0470 (F1 to F13) and 0.2070 (F5 to F13) by using threshold trait analysis. It suggested that L. striatellus had the definite risk of resistance to pymetrozine. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.


Dai Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lu J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lu M.,Soil and Fertilizer Station of Hubei Province | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

In order to find out the proper proportions of crop straws and chemical fertilizer used in field, characteristic of nutrients release of rice straw, wheat straw and rapeseed straw were studied by method of nylon net bag under waterlogged incubation. The results showed that the decomposition rate of crop straws was much faster at the beginning stage and rapeseed straw decomposed faster than rice straw and wheat straw. And crop straws decomposition rate kept a slowly steady until the end of experiment, which had no obvious difference among three crop straws. After 124 days incubation, the cumulative decomposition rates of rice straw, wheat straw and rapeseed straw were 49.17%, 52.17% and 49.8%, respectively. The sequence of nutrients release rates of the three crop straws were K>P>C>N, while the sequence of nutrients release amount were C>K>N>P. C release rate of rice, wheat and rapeseed straw were up to 57.53, 66.58 and 52.54 percent, and N were up to 42.05, 49.26 and 57.83 percent, and P were up to 68.28, 59.93 and 67.32 percent after 124 days incubation, respectively. For all three crop straws K release rate was 98 percent within the first 12 days of incubation. It was indicated that on the basis of crop straws decomposition characteristics and nutrients release amount the application rates of K fertilizer should be decrease and used in crop growth later stage, while N and P should be maintained as usual practice at early crop growth stage.


Cui J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Luo J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Van Der Werf W.,Wageningen University | Ma Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xia J.,National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2011

Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in conferring resistance to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was studied in laboratory and field experiments. In each experiment, performance of Bt+CpTI cotton was compared with Bt cotton and to a conventional nontransgenic variety. Larval survival was lower on both types of transgenic variety, compared with the conventional cotton. Survival of first-, second-, and third-stage larvae was lower on Bt+CpTI cotton than on Bt cotton. Plant structures differed in level of resistance, and these differences were similar on Bt and Bt+CpTI cotton. Likewise, seasonal trends in level of resistance in different plant structures were similar in Bt and Bt+CpTI cotton. Both types of transgenic cotton interfered with development of sixth-stage larvae to adults, and no offspring was produced by H. armigera that fed on Bt or Bt+CpTI cotton from the sixth stage onward. First-, second-, and third-stage larvae spent significantly less time feeding on transgenic cotton than on conventional cotton, and the reduction in feeding time was significantly greater on Bt+CpTI cotton than on Bt cotton. Food conversion efficiency was lower on transgenic varieties than on conventional cotton, but there was no significant difference between Bt and Bt+CpTI cotton. In 3-yr field experimentation, bollworm densities were greatly suppressed on transgenic as compared with conventional cotton, but no significant differences between Bt and Bt+CpTI cotton were found. Overall, the results from laboratory work indicate that introduction of the CpTI gene in Bt cotton raises some components of resistance in cotton against H. armigera, but enhanced control of H. armigera under field conditions, due to expression of the CpTI gene, was not demonstrated. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.


PubMed | National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center, Nanjing Agricultural University and Sinochem Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

The whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvth), and small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Falln), both are important crop pests throughout China, especially in rice. Application of chemical insecticides is the major control practice. Consequently, insecticide resistance has become an urgent issue. In this study, resistance levels to six conventional insecticides were evaluated for these two species collected from major occurring areas of China. Additionally, imidacloprid- (resistance ratio [RR] = 10.4-fold) and buprofezin (RR = 15.1-fold)-resistant strains of whitebacked planthopper were obtained through laboratory selections for cross-resistance profiling and synergism assessment to understand resistance mechanisms. The results showed that all tested populations of both species exhibited low to high levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos, while remaining susceptible to thiamethoxam. Three of the 14 whitebacked planthopper populations showed low to moderate resistance to imidacloprid, while all small brown planthopper populations reminded susceptible. All small brown planthopper and whitebacked planthopper (except one) populations showed at least moderate resistance (RR = 10.1-271.1) to buprofezin. All small brown planthopper populations remained susceptible to pymetrozine and nitenpyram, and all whitebacked planthopper populations remained susceptible to isoprocarb. The imidacloprid-resistant whitebacked planthopper strain showed no significant cross-resistance to other tested insecticides. However, the buprofezin-resistant strain exhibited a low-level cross-resistance (CR = 3.1) to imidacloprid. Piperonyl butoxide, triphenyl phosphate, and diethylmaleate displayed no synergism effect on the resistant whitebacked planthopper strains.


PubMed | National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center and Nanjing Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

The meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L., is a destructive migratory pest in the northern temperate zone. The outbreak mechanism of first-generation adults in China remains unclear. In 2008, the density of first-generation larvae was very low or even negligible in most sites in China. However, a great number of first-generation adults appeared unexpectedly in late July, and their offspring caused the most severe infestation on record. The present study aims to determine where the large influx of immigrant adults originated from and how this unprecedented population was established. Source areas were explored by trajectory analysis, and climatic patterns related to the population increase were investigated. Results showed that the outbreak population mainly immigrated from Northeast Mongolia and the Chita State of Russia, and the buildup of such a large population could be attributed to an exceptional northward migration of overwintered adults from North China to East Mongolia in the spring of 2007 and unusually favourable climatic conditions in the next two growth seasons. These results indicated that the population dynamics of meadow moth in Northeast Asia would be difficult to predict when only considering local climatic factors and population size within one country. International joint monitoring and information sharing related to this pest between China, Mongolia and Russia should be implemented.


PubMed | National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center and Nanjing Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Pesticide biochemistry and physiology | Year: 2016

Three rice planthoppers, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera and small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, are important pests of cultivated rice in tropical and temperate Asia. They have caused severe economic loss and developed resistance to insecticides from most chemical classes. Dinotefuran is the third neonicotinoid which possesses a broad spectrum and systemic insecticidal activity. We determined the susceptibility of dinotefuran to field populations from major rice production areas in China from 2013 to 2015. All the populations of S. furcifera and L. striatellus were kept susceptible to dinotefuran (0.7 to 1.4-fold of S. furcifera and 1.1-to 3.4-fold of L. striatellus) However, most strains of N. lugens (except FQ15) collected in 2015 had developed moderate resistance to dinotefuran, with resistance ratios (RR) ranging from 23.1 to 100.0 folds. Cross-resistance studies showed that chlorpyrifos-resistant and buprofezin-resistant Sogatella furcifera, chlorpyrifos-resistant and fipronil-resistant L. striatellus, imidacloprid-resistant and buprofezin-resistant Nilaparvata lugens exhibited negligible or no cross-resistance to dinotefuran. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) produced a high synergism of dinotefuran effects in the DY15 and JS15 populations (2.14 and 2.52-fold, respectively). The obvious increase in resistance to dinotefuran in N. lugens indicates that insecticide resistance management strategies are urgently needed to prevent or delay further increase of insecticide resistance in N. lugens.

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