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Liu Z.,China Agricultural University | Zhu J.,China Agricultural University | Cui Y.,China Agricultural University | Liang Y.,China Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease of wheat worldwide. Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) is a valuable genetic resource for improving disease resistance in common wheat. A powdery mildew resistance gene conferring resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolate E09 at the seedling and adult stages was identified in wild emmer accession IW170 introduced from Israel. An incomplete dominant gene, temporarily designated MlIW170, was responsible for the resistance. Through molecular marker and bulked segregant analyses of an F 2 population and F 3 families derived from a cross between susceptible durum wheat line 81086A and IW170, MlIW170 was located in the distal chromosome bin 2BS3-0. 84-1. 00 and flanked by SSR markers Xcfd238 and Xwmc243. MlIW170 co-segregated with Xcau516, an STS marker developed from RFLP marker Xwg516 that co-segregated with powdery mildew resistance gene Pm26 on 2BS. Four EST-STS markers, BE498358, BF201235, BQ160080, and BF146221, were integrated into the genetic linkage map of MlIW170. Three AFLP markers, XPaacMcac,XPagcMcta, XPaacMcag, and seven AFLP-derived SCAR markers, XcauG2, XcauG3, XcauG6, XcauG8, XcauG10, XcauG20, and XcauG25, were linked to MlIW170. XcauG3, a resistance gene analog (RGA)-like sequence, co-segregated with MlIW170. The non-glaucousness locus Iw1 was 18. 77 cM distal to MlIW170. By comparative genomics of wheat-Brachypodium-rice genomic co-linearity, four EST-STS markers, CJ658408, CJ945509, BQ169830, CJ945085, and one STS marker XP2430, were developed and MlIW170 was mapped in an 2. 69 cM interval that is co-linear with a 131 kb genomic region in Brachypodium and a 105 kb genomic region in rice. Four RGA-like sequences annotated in the orthologous Brachypodium genomic region could serve as chromosome landing target regions for map-based cloning of MlIW170. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Chen X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zeng J.,National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center | Zhai B.,Nanjing Agricultural University
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2015

The meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L., is a destructive migratory pest in the northern temperate zone. The outbreak mechanism of first-generation adults in China remains unclear. In 2008, the density of first-generation larvae was very low or even negligible in most sites in China. However, a great number of first-generation adults appeared unexpectedly in late July, and their offspring caused the most severe infestation on record. The present study aims to determine where the large influx of immigrant adults originated from and how this unprecedented population was established. Source areas were explored by trajectory analysis, and climatic patterns related to the population increase were investigated. Results showed that the outbreak population mainly immigrated from Northeast Mongolia and the Chita State of Russia, and the buildup of such a large population could be attributed to an exceptional northward migration of overwintered adults from North China to East Mongolia in the spring of 2007 and unusually favourable climatic conditions in the next two growth seasons. These results indicated that the population dynamics of meadow moth in Northeast Asia would be difficult to predict when only considering local climatic factors and population size within one country. International joint monitoring and information sharing related to this pest between China, Mongolia and Russia should be implemented. © 2015 ISB

Shang F.,China Agricultural University | Ren S.,China Agricultural University | Yang P.,China Agricultural University | Li C.,University of New Hampshire | And 2 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2016

Long-term irrigation with recycled water (RW) that contains high salt may pollute groundwater. The HYDRUS-1D model was texted against soil water content and electrical conductivity (ECe) observed in a summer maize and winter wheat rotational field irrigated with ground water (GW) and RW; then, the risk for polluting groundwater in two regions of Beijing was evaluated. The comparisons indicated that the simulated soil water content and ECe values were generally in agreement with the field observations, indicating the reliability of HYDRUS-1D in soils irrigated with GW and RW. The regional prediction results of the proposed simulation model indicated that the average soil ECe at the bottom of vadose zones ranged from 0.400 to 0.896 dS m−1, and the values in the Tongzhou and Daxing Districts irrigated with RW were 1.40 and 1.09 times, respectively, higher than that irrigated with GW over the next 50 years. Five risk indicators represent salt transporting time and values were used. The results of the proposed evaluation model showed that the risk scores ranged from 3.04 to 9.32. In the Tongzhou and Daxing Districts, the risk scores of RW irrigation for polluting groundwater were 1.06 and 1.08 times, respectively, higher than that GW irrigation. The risk scores of GW or RW irrigation for polluting groundwater in the Tongzhou District were 1.75 or 1.72 times, respectively, higher than that in the Daxing District. Considering the small risk difference between GW and RW irrigations, RW can be used in both regions. Due to the different vadose zone structures, the Daxing District is more suitable for RW irrigation. The long-term use of RW for irrigation should consider the salt content of RW and vadose zone structure. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Gao C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yao R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2013

Chlorantraniliprole, a new anthranilic diamide insecticide, has been commercialized in China since 2008 for controlling of several lepidopterans, including rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker. Chemical control of this pest has become difficult because of its resistance development to many conventional insecticides. To facilitate chlorantraniliprole-resistance monitoring, seedling dip bioassays were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to assess the susceptibility of 30 populations of C. suppressalis from seven provinces in China. The assays established a larval susceptibility baseline with LC 50 at 1.393 mg a.i/liter. The toxicity (LC50) of chlorantraniliprole against second-instar larvae of field populations ranged from 0.568 (SL12) to 13.547 (RA12) mg a.i/liter. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole were detected among different geographic populations, but no significant difference was observed between years for most populations except for populations from Dong'an, Cangnan, and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 1.0 to 9.7, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. Approximately, 13.3% of the populations exhibited low levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. These data are useful in future monitoring program for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of use of the insecticide. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.

Wu M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang S.,National Agro Technology Extension and Service Center | Yao R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wu S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important rice pest in China, and has evolved resistance to several classes of insecticides. Flubendiamide is a phthalic diamide insecticide that shows selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. The susceptibility of 40 field populations of C. suppressalis, collected in 2011 and 2012 in seven provinces of south-eastern China, to flubendiamide was determined through rice seedling dipping bioassay method. Of these 40 populations, seven populations that were seldom exposed to flubendiamide were used to set up the baseline sensitivity, and the LC50 value was 0.092 mg/L. Variation in susceptibility among the 40 field populations was high (34-fold). The range of mean lethal concentration (LC50) values in response to this chemical was between 0.032 mg/L (FS11) and 1.090 mg/L (JH12) across the populations. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to flubendiamide were detected among different geographic populations. There was no significant difference observed between years for most populations, except for populations from Jinhua and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 0.8 to 11.8, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. It was found that 16 of the 40 populations had some level of resistance. However, moderate level of resistance was discovered in only one population from JH12 from Zhejiang province (11.8-fold). Other 15 populations showed low level of resistance (5.1-9.3-fold) to flubendiamide. These data are useful in future monitoring programs for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of using flubendiamide. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

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