National Agriculture Research Council

Islamabad, Pakistan

National Agriculture Research Council

Islamabad, Pakistan
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Khan A.N.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Khan A.N.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Shair F.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Malik K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2017

Macrophomina phaseolina is the most devastating pathogen which causes charcoal rot and root rot diseases in various economically important crops. Three strains M. phaseolina 1156, M. phaseolina 1160, and M. phaseolina PCMC/F1 were tested for their virulence on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The strains showed high virulence on both hosts with a disease score of 2 on chickpea and sunflower. The strains also increased the hydrogen per oxide (H2O2) content by 1.4- to 1.6-fold in root as well as shoot of chickpea and sunflower. A significant increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed in fungal infected plants which indicated prevalence of oxidative stress during pathogen propagation. The M. phaseolina strains also produced hydrolytic enzymes such as lipase, amylase, and protease with solubilization zone of 5-43 mm, 5-45 mm, and 12-35 mm, respectively. The M. phaseolina strains were identified by 18S rRNA and analyzed for genetic diversity by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The findings based on RAPD markers and 18S rRNA sequence analysis clearly indicate genetic variation among the strains collected from different hosts. The genetically diverse strains were found to be pathogenic to sunflower and chickpea. © 2017 Khan, Shair, Malik, Hayat, Khan, Hafeez and Hassan.

Sayyed A.H.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Liu T.-X.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Gillani W.A.,National Agriculture Research Council
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

Insect natural enemies can develop resistance to insecticides in the field like their host insects. Recently, a high level of resistance to several groups of insecticides from Pakistan has been shown in Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Here, we were interested to determine the impact of insecticides resistance on fitness of various populations of C. carnea collected over three consecutive years (2005-2007) from different areas of Pakistan. The populations were examined for intrinsic rate of population increase, growth index, fertility, eggs viability, survival to adult hood and doubling time. The results of the study showed significantly higher intrinsic rate of population increase in insecticides resistant population compared with laboratory susceptible population Lab-PK, Similarly, the resistant population laid more numbers of eggs, which were significantly more viable than susceptible population. The survival to adulthood and doubling time were greater in field populations than the susceptible. The most intriguing finding was that the predation potential of all resistant populations was significantly great compared with Lab-PK. The data point to the fact that resistance to insecticides had positive impact on C. carnea, which could be used in integrated pest management system. The potential for introducing these natural enemies into cropping systems where they have not developed resistance could be a useful tactic for management of various insect pests. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

Safdar W.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Majeed H.,Jiangnan University | Ali B.,National Agriculture Research Council | Naveed I.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are the most abundant proteins and considered as Cinderella of molecular chaperon world. The present study is to understand the evolutionary process that led to the diversification of sHSPs specific to plants because of dramatic daily fluctuation in the temperature and other environmental factors which may prompt more efficient chaperon activity of sHSPs. For this purpose mRNA and protein sequences of 62 different plant sHSPs was mined from different databases and analyzed with Clustal W and MEGA 5 Beta # 7 software. Two Neighbor Joining (NJ) and two Dendrogram large congruent trees were obtained from the phylogenetic analysis of mRNA and amino acids. These analyses reveal that sHSPs encoded by one gene family are similar to each other even in different plant species. However, sHSPs belonging to different gene families show very low sequence similarity even in same plant species. These analyses also suggest that gene duplication and mutation play an important role in the evolution and diversification of sHSP.

Afroz A.,National Agriculture Research Council | Afroz A.,University of Gujrat | Qureshi A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Zahur M.,University of Gujrat | And 2 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2012

An efficient transformation system for rice was established by co-cultivating calli, derived from 21-day-old scutellum, with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells (OD600 = 0. 04), maintained on filter paper, moistened with 4 mL of a medium, and supplemented with 400 μM acetosyringone, for a period of 2 days. Presence of the transgene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, and stable integration and copy number of the transgene were determined by Southern blot analysis. Among seven plants analyzed, six possessed single T-DNA integration events, while one plant was found to have two integrated copies of the T-DNA. A total of 45 T 0 plants were grown in the greenhouse to obtain the T 1 generation. T 1 plants evaluated for presence of the transgene and for response to inoculation with the bacterial leaf blight pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae, exhibited Mendelian segregation (3:1) for the transgene as well as enhanced resistance to bacterial blight © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Rauf S.,University of Sargodha | Haider M.S.,University of Sargodha | Tariq S.A.,National Agriculture Research Council | Ejaz M.,University of Sargodha | And 2 more authors.
Bioremediation Journal | Year: 2013

Experiments were carried out with various salts and their combinations to ascertain the impact of these salts on seedling traits of fodder species and to identify tolerant species. Length-based traits showed a repressed effect, whereas weight-based traits were increased under salt stress. Furthermore, accumulation of Na+, Ca2+, and Cl- ions and metals (Cu2+, Fe2+, and Al3+) increased in various organs of seedlings due to various salt treatments. Contrastingly, K+, K+/Na+, and Ca2+/Cl- decreased, showing priority for specific salts. Seedling traits, such as shoot length sensitivity and shoot biomass, provide an effective mean of selection for tolerant or susceptible genotypes. Diverse types of tolerance mechanisms were present in cultivars to detoxify the effect of ions and metals. Cultivars that showed low susceptibility index, high shoot biomass, and high metal concentration were salt includers and could be utilized for bioremediation of the affected areas, whereas tolerant cultivars that showed low susceptibility index, metals concentration, and comparable shoot biomass to that of the control were salt excluders and could be utilized for fodder purposes. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Safdar M.E.,University of Sargodha | Safdar M.E.,National Agriculture Research Council | Safdar M.E.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Noorka I.R.,University of Sargodha | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Rice plant was considered sensitive to heat stress especially during reproductive growth phase. Eight medium grain rice accessions: 999421, KSK 401, KSK 402, PK 7797-1-2-1, KSK 301, KSK 418, KSK 406 and KS 282 were sown on five different sowing dates: 16th April, 1st May, 16 May, 1st June and 16th June during summer seasons of three successive years from 2004 to 2006 to access their growth and yield performance under earlier, mid and late sown conditions. Experiment was laid out in split plot design. Accession × sowing date interaction remained significantly different for all traits studied. The differential yield response of accessions to various sowing dates was found to be due to their differential tolerance against high temperature stress at vegetative and reproductive growth phases. On an average, 12% and 9% reduction in paddy yield was obtained in sowing dates where heat stress coincided with reproductive and seedling growth, respectively. Paddy yield and number of grains panicle-1 increased with delay in sowing time up to 16th May whereas days to 100% flowering, tillers hill-1 and plant height decreased with delayed sowing. Among yield components number of grains panicle-1 showed positive linear relationship (R2=0.40) with paddy yield which means yield gains were attributed to higher number of grains panicle-1 rather than higher number of tillers hill-1. Maximum number of grains panicle-1 and paddy yield of almost all rice accessions under mid sown conditions (16th May) seem to be associated with non-coincidence of their reproductive growth periods with heat stress as occurred in early sown conditions (16th April, 1st May).

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