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Takata K.,National Agriculture Research Center for Western Region | Ikeda T.M.,National Agriculture Research Center for Western Region | Yanaka M.,National Agriculture Research Center for Western Region | Matsunaka H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 4 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2010

Grain texture is one of the most important characteristics that affect the end-use quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Mutations in the puroindoline-a and puroindoline-b genes are associated with hard grain texture. The expression patterns of the PINA and PINB proteins differ among Pin alleles. We studied the effect of Pin alleles on grain hardness, and milling flour properties using near isogenic lines grown at two different locations. The genotype was found to significantly affect quality parameters related to grain hardness. Grain hardness, flour particle size, damaged starch content were significantly low in Pinb-D1b as compared to Pinb-D1c, Pinb-D1p, Pina-D1b, and Pina-D1k. Grain hardness of Pina-D1k, lacking both PINA and PINB, were the highest, followed by Pina-D1b lacking PINA. Pina-D1k and Pina-D1b showed high damaged starch contents and CO 2 production. Damaged starch is associated with water absorption of flour and CO 2 production during dough fermentation, an important characteristic in bread-making. The alleles might be useful for improving bread-making quality. These results indicate that the grain texture of hard wheat is affected by the amount of PINs each allele.


Kobayashi H.,Niigata University | Eguchi A.,Niigata University | Takano W.,Niigata University | Shibata M.,National Agriculture Research Center for Western Region | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

The major taste active component, glutamate (Glu), improves the taste of meat. In this study, we investigated the effect of a short-term high-protein (HCP) diet on the intramuscular free Glu content to improve the taste of meat. Furthermore, we elucidated how the muscle free Glu content was controlled by the HCP diet. Chicks (14 days old) were fed the control diet or HCP diet for 10 days. Plasma and muscle free amino acid concentrations, and activity and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of muscle enzymes related to Glu metabolism were determined. Muscle free Glu content was increased (P<0.01) by 51%. Activity and mRNA expression of glutaminase (GA), which is one of the major Glu-related enzymes, were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the HCP group because of feedback inhibition. The mRNA expression of lysine α-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR), which is the enzyme involved in lysine (Lys) degradation and Glu production, was significantly increased (P<0.001) in the HCP group. These results suggest that short-term dietary HCP feeding is an effective treatment for improving the taste of meat. Furthermore, our results suggest that the free Glu content in muscle is regulated by GA and LKR. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


Kase C.,Azabu University | Eguchi Y.,National Agriculture Research Center for Western Region | Furuya M.,Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Uetake K.,Azabu University | Tanaka T.,Azabu University
Mammal Study | Year: 2011

To prevent damage to houses, we investigated the particular size and shape of gap that 12 masked palm civets (six subadults and six adults weighing 2.2-3.4 kg) could enter. After the animals were humanely killed, we measured the body parts of civets and compared those of animals that could and could not enter the gaps. The minimum sizes for different shapes of gaps that masked palm civets could enter were the H6 × W20 cm horizontally long rectangle, H20 × W6 cm vertically long rectangle, 8 cm square, and 9 cm diameter circle. There were no significant differences in most body parts sizes between individuals that went through the minimum-size rectangular gaps and individuals that did not. In contrast, differences in the sizes of body parts affected the minimum sizes of square and circular gaps that they entered. The minimum sizes of square and circular gaps that they entered could be predicted by the regression line of their body weight (square: y = 0.98x + 5.75, r 2 = 0.76, P < 0.01, circle: y = 0.93x + 6.84, r 2 = 0.72, P < 0.01). © the Mammalogical Society of Japan.


Watanabe G.,Niigata University | Kobayashi H.,Niigata University | Shibata M.,National Agriculture Research Center for Western Region | Kubota M.,Niigata University | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2015

Regulation of taste is important for improving meat quality and glutamate (Glu) is one of the important taste-active components in meat. Here, the effects of dietary lysine (Lys) content on taste-active components in meat, especially free Glu, were investigated. Fourteen-day-old broiler chicks (Gallus gallus) were fed on diets containing 100% or 150% of the recommended Lys content for 10 days. Concentrations of free amino acids in plasma, muscle and liver were measured. The levels of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for enzymes related to Glu metabolism were determined in muscle and liver. The concentration of muscle metabolites was also determined. The free Glu content in muscle of chicks fed the Lys150% diet was increased by 44.0% compared with that in chicks fed the Lys100% diet (P<0.01). The mRNA level of lysine α-ketoglutarate reductase, which is involved in Lys degradation and Glu production, was significantly increased (P<0.05) in the Lys150% group. Metabolome analysis showed that the Lys degradation products, muscular saccharopine, pipecolic acid and α-aminoadipic acid, were increased in the Lys150% group. Our results suggest that free Glu content in muscle is regulated by Lys degradation. These results suggest that a short-term feeding of high-Lys diet could improve the taste of meat. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

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