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Ortiz O.,International Potato Center | Orrego R.,International Potato Center | Pradel W.,International Potato Center | Gildemacher P.,International Potato Center | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2011

Participatory research (PR) has been presented as an alternative to develop sustainable agricultural technologies more responsive to farmer needs. However, the institutionalization of PR methods is influenced by stakeholders' perceptions about incentives and disincentives. The study was conducted by gathering and analysing information from farmers, facilitators and institutional representatives involved in conducting potato-related PR in Bolivia, Ethiopia, Peru and Uganda between 2005 and 2007. Results indicate that at the farmer level the most important incentives are related to the benefits they can acquire (improving human and social capital, which is essential for more sustainable results). At the facilitator level, operational and organizational factors represent incentives, for example, perception of additional benefits, existing capabilities and skills, and access to logistic support. Some factors also represent disincentives such response to different types of demands, and instability of jobs within institutions. At the organization level, both financial and operational factors represent incentives or disincentives, such as the cost of PR methods, availability of skillful human resources, quality of technologies generated and the sustainability of financial support. These factors at both individual and organizational level need to be taken into consideration by organizations aiming at scaling up and out-of-PR methods and derived technologies in a sustainable way. © 2011 Earthscan.


Ortiz O.,International Potato Center | Orrego R.,International Potato Center | Pradel W.,International Potato Center | Gildemacher P.,International Potato Center | And 12 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2013

In the last 50. years, theoretical and practical approaches to promoting agricultural innovations have been evolving. Initial innovation diffusion theories led to a linear, top-down approach of technology transfer. However, changes occurred in the 1970s and 1980s, such as the economic structural adjustment which caused a dramatic decrease in governmental agricultural research and extension services in several developing countries. Simultaneously a number of new stakeholders (NGOs, private companies, farmer organizations, local governments, etc.) started to contribute to agricultural innovations more actively in the 1990s and 2000s. As the changes occurred, scholars began proposing new theories, such as the innovation systems approach, to explain how multiple stakeholders interact, exchange information, generate knowledge and develop innovations for solving problems. The paper describes the results of a rapid appraisal of potato innovation systems in Bolivia, Ethiopia, Peru and Uganda. The method was useful for identifying components and limitations in the system at pilot sites. Results indicate that the systems had similar types of components, namely national and local government organizations, NGOs, private companies, farmer organizations and media; another common feature was the limited interaction among organizational components, which reduced farmer access to information, technologies, organizations, markets and services. However, the role of organizational components was different across countries. Farmer organizations played a limited role at the pilot sites in these countries, except in Bolivia. The role of national governments was also limited in Bolivia and Peru, but played a major role in Ethiopia and Uganda at the moment of the study. Local governments were starting to play an important role in the four sites. NGOs played an active role in most countries, and the private companies in charge of input supply were more active in Bolivia and Peru. Media (radio) were present, but they were not contributing significantly to disseminating information for innovation. The International Potato Center (CIP) was present in all the systems, playing a role of innovation brokerage. Results indicate that different types of intervention would be needed for each country to strengthen the roles that components were already playing, but should look for improving interactions among components. In Ethiopia, strengthening innovation capacity of potato-related government organizations would be desirable to start the process, but in Bolivia, Peru and Uganda, enhancing interactions and coordination among government organizations, NGOs, private companies and farmer organizations would be needed, for example, to improve farmer access to quality planting material and markets. The role of farmer organizations and the private companies in charge of input supply need to be strengthened in the potato innovation systems in all places. The rapid appraisal of potato innovation systems has shown to be a method with potential to start understanding the complexity of the innovation systems and identify potential entry points for interventions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.10M | Year: 2015

East Africa (EA) has one of the worlds fastest growing populations, with maxima around water-bodies and rapid urbanisation. Climate change is adding to existing problems increasing vulnerability of the poorest. HyCRISTAL is driven by EA priorities. EA communities rely on rainfall for food via agriculture. EAs inland lakes are rain-fed and provide water, power and fisheries. For EAs growing cities, climate impacts on water resources will affect water supply & treatment. HyCRISTAL will therefore operate in both urban & rural contexts. Change in water availability will be critical for climate-change impacts in EA, but projections are highly uncertain for rain, lakes, rivers and groundwater, and for extremes. EA Long-Rains are observed to be decreasing; while models tend to predict an increase (the EA Climate paradox) although predictions are not consistent. This uncertainty provides a fundamental limit on the utility of climate information to inform policy. HyCRISTAL will therefore make best use of current projections to quantify uncertainty in user-relevant quantities and provide ground-breaking research to understand and reduce the uncertainty that currently limits decision making. HyCRISTAL will work with users to deliver world-leading climate research quantifying uncertainty from natural variability, uncertainty from climate forcings including those previously unassessed, and uncertainty in response to these forcings; including uncertainties from key processes such as convection and land-atmopshere coupling that are misrepresented in global models. Research will deliver new understanding of the mechanisms that drive the uncertainty in projections. HyCRISTAL will use this information to understand trends, when climate-change signals will emerge and provide a process-based expert judgement on projections. Working with policy makers, inter-disciplinary research (hydrology, economics, engineering, social science, ecology and decision-making) will quantify risks for rural & urban livelihoods, quantify climate impacts and provide the necessary tools to use climate information for decision making. HyCRISTAL will work with partners to co-produce research for decision-making on a 5-40 year timescale, demonstrated in 2 main pilots for urban water and policies to enable adaptive climate-smart rural livelihoods. These cover two of three areas of need from the African Ministerial Council on Environments Comprehensive Framework of African Climate Change Programmes. HyCRISTAL has already engaged 12 partners from across EA. HyCRISTALs Advisory Board will provide a mechanism for further growing stakeholder engagement. HyCRISTAL will work with the FCFA global & regional projects and CCKE, sharing methods, tools, user needs, expertise & communication. Uniquely, HyCRISTAL will capitalise on the new LVB-HyNEWS, an African-led consortium, governed by the East African Community, the Lake Victoria Basin Commission and National Meteorological and Hydrological agencies, with the African Ministerial Conference on Meteorology as an observer. HyCRISTAL will build EA capacity directly via collaboration (11 of 25 HyCRISTAL Co-Is are African, with 9 full-time in Africa), including data collection and via targeted workshops and teaching. HyCRISTAL will deliver evidence of impact, with new and deep climate science insights that will far outlast its duration. It will support decisions for climate-resilient infrastructure and livelihoods through application of new understanding in its pilots, with common methodological and infrastructure lessons to promote policy and enable transformational change for impact-at-scale. Using a combination of user-led and science-based management tools, HyCRISTAL will ensure the latest physical science, engineering and social-science yield maximum impacts. HyCRISTAL will deliver outstanding outputs across FCFAs aims; synergies with LVB-HyNEWS will add to these and ensure longevity beyond HyCRISTAL.


Ocimati W.,Bioversity International | Ssekiwoko F.,National Agricultural Research Organization NARO | Karamura E.B.,Bioversity International | Tinzaara W.,Bioversity International | Blomme G.,Bioversity International
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset (XW) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) is a devastating bacterial disease. Infection of preflowering stage plants result in leaf yellowing/wilting and eventual plant death. Floral infections result in wilting of male bud bracts, followed by decaying of the rachis, premature fruit ripening and bunch rotting, and eventual death of the plant. The movement of Xcm in infected plants is systemic. However, the presence of Xcm in cord roots of banana plants has not yet been investigated. Cord roots of symptomatic pre-flowering stage and inflorescence-infected plants of an East African highland banana cultivar mixture (AAA-EA) and 'Pisang Awak' (ABB) were examined for Xcm presence, in naturally infested farmers' fields and after artificial inoculation. Pre-flowering stage plants were inoculated by cutting the three oldest leaves with a contaminated knife, while a Xcm suspension was smeared on male flower/bract scars of flowering plants. In addition, pre-flowering stage plants were inoculated by cutting the cord roots with a contaminated knife and drenching the surrounding soil with Xcm suspension. Plants were monitored during 12 months for symptom development. Overall, the presence of Xcm in the cord roots was significantly lower compared to corms. A higher incidence of cord root infection was observed in the artificially inoculated plants compared to plants assessed in farmers' fields. The incidence of cord root infections in inflorescence-infected plants increased with progressing disease development for both cultivars. The results suggest that cord roots could contribute to garden tool transmission, for example during weeding. Therefore, hand weeding and herbicide use are advised when diseased mats are present in a field. Long incubation periods and latent infections were noted after artificial cord root inoculations. The development and deployment of diagnostic kits sensitive to latent infections for routine surveillance is therefore recommended for effective XW management.


Ssekandi W.,National Crops Resources Research Institute NaCRRI | Mulumba J.W.,National Agricultural Research Organization NARO | Colangelo P.,National Research Council Italy | Nankya R.,Bioversity International | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2016

The bean fly (Ophiomyia spp.) is considered the most economically damaging field insect pest of common beans in Uganda. Despite the use of existing pest management approaches, reported damage has remained high. Forty-eight traditional and improved common bean varieties currently grown in farmers’ fields were evaluated for resistance against bean fly. Data on bean fly incidence, severity and root damage from bean stem maggot were collected. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) revealed significant resistance to bean fly in the Ugandan traditional varieties. A popular resistant traditional variety and a popular susceptible commercial variety were selected from the 48 varieties and evaluated in pure and mixed stands. The incidence of bean fly infestation on both varieties in mixtures with different arrangements (systematic random versus rows), and different proportions within each of the two arrangements, was measured and analysed using GLMMs. The proportion of resistant varieties in a mixture and the arrangement type significantly decreased bean fly damage compared to pure stands, with the highest decrease in damage registered in the systematic random mixture with at least 50 % of resistant variety. The highest reduction in root damage, obvious 21 days after planting, was found in systematic random mixtures with at least 50 % of the resistant variety. Small holder farmers in East Africa and elsewhere in the world have local preferences for growing bean varieties in genetic mixtures. These mixtures can be enhanced by the use of resistant varieties in the mixtures to reduce bean fly damage on susceptible popular varieties. © 2015, The Author(s).


Ssekandi W.,National Crops Resources Research Institute NaCRRI | Mulumba J.W.,National Agricultural Research Organization NARO | Colangelo P.,National Research Council Italy | Nankya R.,Bioversity International | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2015

The bean fly (Ophiomyia spp.) is considered the most economically damaging field insect pest of common beans in Uganda. Despite the use of existing pest management approaches, reported damage has remained high. Forty-eight traditional and improved common bean varieties currently grown in farmers’ fields were evaluated for resistance against bean fly. Data on bean fly incidence, severity and root damage from bean stem maggot were collected. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) revealed significant resistance to bean fly in the Ugandan traditional varieties. A popular resistant traditional variety and a popular susceptible commercial variety were selected from the 48 varieties and evaluated in pure and mixed stands. The incidence of bean fly infestation on both varieties in mixtures with different arrangements (systematic random versus rows), and different proportions within each of the two arrangements, was measured and analysed using GLMMs. The proportion of resistant varieties in a mixture and the arrangement type significantly decreased bean fly damage compared to pure stands, with the highest decrease in damage registered in the systematic random mixture with at least 50 % of resistant variety. The highest reduction in root damage, obvious 21 days after planting, was found in systematic random mixtures with at least 50 % of the resistant variety. Small holder farmers in East Africa and elsewhere in the world have local preferences for growing bean varieties in genetic mixtures. These mixtures can be enhanced by the use of resistant varieties in the mixtures to reduce bean fly damage on susceptible popular varieties. © 2015 The Author(s)


Mutonyi S.,National Agricultural Research Organization NARO | Fungo B.,National Agricultural Research Organization NARO | Fungo B.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry
Research Journal of Applied Sciences | Year: 2011

Agroforestry is increasing being recognition of a viable option for overcoming a large portion of the current global challenges of climate change mitigation and adaptation, food security and household income. To increase the contribution of agroforestry, there is urgent need to test the technological robustness of agro forestry through on-farm testing with farmers as a principle step in up-scaling the adoption of the technologies. A survey of 229 households was conducted in Mubende, Kaynga and Luwero districts in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) of to determine the level of awareness of the various agro forestry technologies for livelihood improvement, assess opinions of farmers about the usefulness of agroforestry technologies and evaluate their choice of planting pattern and willingness to adopt new technologies if introduced. We found that the level of awareness of agroforestry technologies was generally low with only about 30% of the farmers having been exposed to at least one improved agroforestry technology. A large proportion of farmers were willing to adopt if the technologies were introduced although several constraints such as land shortage, limited access to planning materials labour intensiveness and lack of market may limit them. The most important socio-economic determinant is exposure to the technology. Training and sensitization are highly recommended approaches for promoting adoption of technologies that the National agricultural Advisory services should include as an integral ingredient of the advisory role. Germplasm of candidate species is should be developed and availed to farmers possibly through local nursery operators that are periodically supervised by NARO and NAADS. © 2011 Medwell Journals.


Patent
Wada Sugar Refining Co. and National Agricultural Research Organization Naro | Date: 2010-12-22

An apoptosis inductor is formed of an anthocyanin-containing extract obtained from a potato containing anthocyanine in the skin and flesh thereof. The potato is a potato of cultivated species, such as Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena L. and S. phureja Juz. et Buk., or of hybrid species based on the cultivated species.

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