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Mcdonagh J.,University of East Anglia | Lu Y.,University of East Anglia | Semalulu O.,National Agricultural Research Organisation NARO
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2014

This research investigated empirically the qualities of improved soil management practices (ISMPs) most likely to lead to land user adoption. Land users' perceptions of soil-related constraints were investigated in two hillside districts of eastern Uganda. The research looked at land user rationale for adopting and adapting specific ISMPs at the end of a two-year period of increased advice and support. Land user engagement with soil management improved markedly after this period of support and multifunctionality, that is, provision of a number of different products or benefits, was seen to be a common characteristic of those ISMPs taken up by land users. It is argued that in the search for 'best-bet' ISMPs, multifunctionality may be a particularly relevant and easily measurable indicator of likely adoption of a practice by land users. The research also demonstrates the value of supporting land users in their efforts to adapt ISMPs to fit with their own circumstances. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Leroy T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | De Bellis F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Legnate H.,Center National Of Recherche Agronomique Cnra | Kananura E.,National Agricultural Research Organisation NARO | And 9 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2011

Coffea canephora breeding requires combining sustainable productivity with improved technological and cup quality characteristics. Beverage quality is a complex and subjective trait, and breeding for this trait is time consuming and depends on knowledge of the genetics of its components. A highly variable C. canephora progeny resulting from an intraspecific cross was assessed for 63 traits over 5 years. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling agronomic, technological, and quality-related traits, a genetic map comprising 236 molecular markers was constructed, and composite interval mapping was performed. Beverage quality was evaluated in relation to biochemical and cup tasting traits. QTLs were identified for almost half of the traits evaluated, with effects ranging from 6% to 80% of phenotypic variation. Most of them present a consistent detection over years. The strongest QTLs explained a high percentage of the variation for yield in 2006 (34% to 57%), bean size (25% to 35%), content of chlorogenic acids (22% to 35%), sucrose and trigonelline content (29% to 81%), and acidity and bitterness of coffee beverages (30% to 55%). Regions of the C. canephora genome influencing beverage quality were identified. Five QTL zones were co-localized with candidate genes related to the biosynthesis of the analyzed traits: two genes coding for caffeine biosynthesis, one gene implicated in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acids, and two genes implicated in sugar metabolism. This is one of the first studies on the identification of QTLs combining agronomic and quality traits in coffee. The high variability of quality traits within C. canephora and the presence of consistent QTLs offer breeders a promising tool to improve coffee cup quality. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Nakacwa R.,National Agricultural Research Organisation NARO | Kiggundu A.,National Agricultural Research Organisation NARO | Talwana H.,Makerere University | Namaganda J.,National Agricultural Research Organisation NARO | And 3 more authors.
Transgenic Research | Year: 2013

Information on relatedness in nematodes is commonly obtained by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. However, the level of diversity at this locus is often insufficient for reliable species differentiation. Recent findings suggest that the sequences of a fragment of the small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rRNA or SSU), identify genera of soil nematodes and can also distinguish between species in some cases. A database of soil nematode genera in a Ugandan soil was developed using 18S rRNA sequences of individual nematodes from a GM banana confined field trial site at the National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda in Uganda. The trial was planted to evaluate transgenic bananas for resistance to black Sigatoka disease. Search for relatedness of the sequences gained with entries in a public genomic database identified a range of 20 different genera and sometimes distinguished species. Molecular markers were designed from the sequence information to underpin nematode faunal analysis. This approach provides bio-indicators for disturbance of the soil environment and the condition of the soil food web. It is being developed to support environmental biosafety analysis by detecting any perturbance by transgenic banana or other GM crops on the soil environment. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Tumuhaise V.,National Agricultural Research Organisation NARO | Agona A.,National Agricultural Research Organisation NARO | Sseruwu G.,National Agricultural Research Organisation NARO
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science | Year: 2016

An invasive pest, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been observed infesting tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Central Uganda. The affected farmer made the report, and upon visiting the farm, we observed tiny larvae, green to cream in colour with a black head feeding on tomato leaves, fruit, as well as tender stems. Also, we saw several tiny moths resting on screen house linings. Delta traps baited with TUA-Optima® (Russell IPM) were set in and around the affected farm. Dozens of moths were attracted and trapped on the sticky surface of the traps. The team tentatively identified the insect as T. absoluta. Scientists at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe) in Nairobi, Kenya identified the insect using morphological features and molecular techniques. Copyright © icipe 2016 Source

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