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Corbett P.,National Agricultural Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae

Pyrethrum is grown as a cash crop in the central mountain areas above 2000 m in Papua New Guinea. With the high potential of this crop, a extraction factory producing crude oleoresin was commissioned in 1964 processing nearly 600 tons dried flowers annually in peak years. However for various reasons flower production declined and the factory stopping for a few years. Management was transferred, the factory renovated, flower production revitalized and the industry is building up again. Source

Desta T.T.,P.A. College | Ayalew W.,International Livestock Research Institute | Ayalew W.,National Agricultural Research Institute | Hegde B.P.,Haramaya University
Tropical Animal Health and Production

Like their smallholder subsistence counterparts in developing countries, breed and trait preferences of Sheko cattle keepers have broad perspectives. Our study has documented breed and trait preferences of Sheko cattle keepers in southwestern Ethiopia-the natural breeding tract of Sheko cattle. Our results showed that due to their multifunctionality, cattle are the most preferred livestock species. Overall, farmers showed slightly more preference to local Zebus over Sheko breed. This is due to voracious feeding behavior of Sheko cattle, which make them less preferable in the face of worsening feed shortage, and due to aggressive temperament of Sheko cattle. This is despite Sheko's outperforming potential over local Zebus in their milk production, draft power, and hardiness. At trait level, overall milk production was consistently reported as the most preferred trait followed by fertility and traction. This trait preference rank has matched with the reported frequency count ranks for Sheko cattle use. However, breed preference rank has not matched with reported trait preference ranks because Sheko excels local Zebus in all the three most preferred traits, but it was ranked second. Therefore, to minimize these conflicting interests, breed management plans for Sheko cattle should target on strategies that help to solve feed shortage problem and to improve feeding practices, and on selection of less aggressive Sheko cattle. Therefore, these strategies should be considered in line with Sheko cattle conservation and genetic improvement programs. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

de Graaff J.,Wageningen University | Duarte F.,Instituto Superior Of Economia Agraria E Sociologia Rural | Fleskens L.,National Agricultural Research Institute | de Figueiredo T.,Escola Superior de Braganca
Land Use Policy

Under the past Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) olive oil subsidy regime, farmers were eligible for subsidies on the basis of the amount of olive oil they produced. This led to an intensification of production, particularly on flat land, and had in most cases negative environmental effects, such as more soil erosion on sloping land and more pollution. With the decoupling of agricultural support under the newly established rules of the CAP, formalised in 2005, cross compliance measures have become obligatory. In this paper an ex-ante assessment is made of the application of cross compliance for soil erosion control (natural cover crops and terrace maintenance) in hilly and mountainous olive groves in Trás-os-Montes in Portugal. A linear programming model was developed to assess the various socio-economic and environmental effects of four different development scenarios for olive groves. The scenarios were developed on the basis of changing market prices, wage rates and subsidies; their effects included shifts towards intensification, abandonment and organic farming. Simulations considering a minimum return to labour constraint showed very high levels of abandonment, particularly in combination with cross compliance obligations. However, even without this minimum return to labour constraint, abandonment would reach more than 20% in three out of the four scenarios. The model showed that cross compliance obligations could be quite effective in reducing erosion, but that they would depress income in all scenarios as a result of higher abandonment and lower percentage shifts towards intensive systems. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Carrasco-Letelier L.,National Agricultural Research Institute INIA | Mendoza-Spina Y.,National Agricultural Research Institute | Branchiccela M.B.,Institute Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable

Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD50 for honeybees in the SWZU. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dhanya K.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Sasikumar B.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Sasikumar B.,National Agricultural Research Institute
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy

Plant foods and agricultural commodities including spices are increasingly subjected to adulteration by design or default, jeopardizing the age old reputation of some of the famous traded commodities and incurring heavy loss to the exchequer. The adulterants range from synthetic chemicals and earthy materials to products of plant origin. Though conventional analytical tools have good resolution power to detect the synthetic adulterants of food and agricultural commodities, these methods are hardly powerful enough to identify the biological adulterants. DNA based methods have application in biological adulterant detection and authentication of a wide range of food and agricultural commodities. This review lists some of the adulterants in powdered black pepper, chilli and turmeric and their detection with special reference to selected molecular markers (RAPD and SCAR) . Source

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