Szentivanyi P.,National Agricultural Research Institute and Innovation Center |
Kallay E.,National Agricultural Research Institute and Innovation Center |
Makay M.,National Agricultural Research Institute and Innovation Center |
Bujdoso G.,National Agricultural Research Institute and Innovation Center |
Bujdoso G.,Corvinus University of Budapest
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
The European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) breeding started in 1950 at the former Horticultural Research Institute. Aims were to bred cultivars with early ripening time, uniformity in the ripening time, big yield, large fruit size, unique fruit color, good taste, easy cleaning of the kernel followed by easy propagation and tolerance to biotic and abiotic factors. As results of this breeding work there are 6 landscape selected state registered chestnut cultivars on the Hungarian National Variety List. All Hungarian bred cultivars were selected from the local chestnut population. Unfortunately, this research work stopped in the 1980s. The Fruit Growing Research Institute has created a so-called Fruit Site Cataster System, which contains all fruit sites, where fruit species can be grown safety. Location, climatic conditions and soil characteristics of sites are checked during the examination of a new fruit site to complete the Cataster. Those sites, where a fruit species can be grown safety, are in the Cataster. Seventeen fruit species are involved into this system, among other chestnut as well. Based on the official statistical data there are approx. 467 ha chestnut orchards in Hungary. There are limited site conditions for chestnut in Hungary because the Hungarian soils have too high lime content therefore their pH is high. The Hungarian growers use mainly Hungarian bred cultivars, the most planted cultivar is 'Koszegszerdahelyi 29' followed by 'Iharosberényi 2' and 'Iharosberényi 29'. Usage of foreign bred cultivars is increasing because the Hungarian growers prefer early ripening cultivars with large fruit size.