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Neacsu A.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

Bread making industry and wheat markets have strict requirements for grain protein concentration (GPC), as there is a strong positive relationship between grain protein concentration and bread volume and texture. The objective of this paper was to identify genotypic differences between 23 Romanian and foreign winter wheat cultivars in GPC, as related with grain yield, and in GPC stability across environments. Samples from yield trials performed during 30 environments (4 locations, 3 years and different management systems), widely different in nitrogen availability and yield potential, were analyzed for grain protein content. Grain protein concentration was mainly determined by the environment, but average differences between cultivars were significant when tested against the genotype*environment interaction. More than 40% of the GPC variation between cultivars could be explained by the negative correlation with grain yield, but several cultivars had a higher GPC than expected based on their average yield. This suggests some possibilities in breeding for both grain yield and protein concentration. Large differences were found among tested cultivars for GPC stability, as expressed by the amplitude and the coefficient of variation. Romanian cultivars showed better GPC stability than the tested foreign cultivars. Neither the amplitude of variation, nor the coefficient of variation was correlated with average GPC, indicating possibilities in breeding for both higher and more stable GPC. Based on regressions of each cultivar GPC on average GPC of all cultivars, cultivars could be classified as more responsive to environments that were favorable to higher protein concentration in the grains (such as Capo, Exotic etc), or more able to maintain GPC in less favorable environments (such as Şimnic 50, Dropia, Flamura 85, Izvor, Glosa and Lovrin 34). Frequency of GPC value below an accepted minimum, which is important from farmer's point of view, closely correlated with the average GPC (r = -0.847 ooo), but some cultivars with similar averages had different number of cases below the required level, indicating additional possibilities of progress. Source


David M.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

Breeding wheat for drought resistance has become a high priority in many parts of the world. Short duration seedling tests under controlled conditions, which can be performed off-season for preliminary selection, could contribute to faster progress in improving wheat response to water stress. Searching for such a simple seedling test, we measured leaf elongation and second leaf drying of seedlings grown in pots filled with 500 cc perlite, and exposed to water stress induced by gradual drying. We found large differences between the studied cultivars in both leaf elongation and drying of the second leaf, and these differences were largely in agreement with the available information about the behaviour of the cultivars under drought in the field. Therefore, we suggest that leaf elongation and leaf drying under water stress induced by gradual drying of the substrate in a seedling test can be used for preliminary characterization and selection of genotypes in breeding for drought resistance. Source


Cociu A.I.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

This research was intended to estimate the influence of season temperatures and precipitations on maize grain yield in different several annual and perennial crop sequences (rotations) under rain-fed conditions, over 10 years, in the southern zone of Romania (Fundulea location). Maize produced less grain under higher summer temperature, but its yield increased with more summer rainfall. Crop rotation break with a perennial alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), as fertility restoration plot, increased very significantly the maize grain yield. The rotation breaking x year interaction was distinctly significant. The advantage of rotation breaking was lower during seasons with warmer springs. The highest mean maize grain yield, of 10.08 t ha-1, was recorded for the three year rotation, being with 0.66, 0.69, and 1.89 t ha-1 higher than those obtained with 4 year rotation, 2 year rotation, and monoculture, respectively. The benefit of rotation in terms of grain yield was greatest for maize during years with cool summers. Seasonal temperature and rainfall patterns influenced the effect of crop rotation and its breaking with a perennial crop on maize yield. This study represents a contribution to better understanding of maize plant physiology and its agronomic requirements for obtaining high grain yields in the specific soil and climate conditions of southern Romania. Source


David M.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2016

Drought and osmotic stresses, that can both affect the plant in any vegetation stage, including seedling stage, may be characterized through water status measurements. Non-destructive remote sensing offers a viable alternative for screening many genotypes in a short time. Significant genotypic differences were previously demonstrated in seedlings growth response to water stress, but characterizing growth necessitated frequent measurements, which limited the usefullness of this method in routine screening of breeding material. In an attempt to avoid this limitation, we searched for genetic differences between wheat cultivars in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in seedlings exposed to water stress through gradual drying. 17 wheat genotypes, contrasting in drought resistance, were subjected to water stress by gradual drying of the substrate, during 27 days, using 1000 cm3 of soil, initially soaked with 300 ml of water. The cultivars were tested under controlled conditions in a growth chamber. We found significant differences between wheat genotypes for NDVI, as well as significant correlation between NDVI measured in water stress seedlings and osmotic adjustment estimated by pollen test, as well as between NDVI and an estimation of yield response to drought in the field. NDVI measured in seedlings exposed to gradual drying of the substrate can allow exploring and test a large number of genotypes and can be used for off-season direct comparison between cultivars. © 2016, National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea. All rights reserved. Source


Cociu A.I.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2016

Tillage plays a key role in cropping system sustainability, due to its impact on soil properties, crop yields, economic returns, labour, and energy requirements. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of sub-soiling and tillage systems (two conservation tillage practices vs. the conventional tillage), under rain fed conditions, on the yield and its stability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. This long-term field experiment was initiated in 2007 and based on 3-yr crop rotation. Rainfall use efficiency of each crop was also evaluated. The 8-yr (2007-2015) average of winter wheat grain yield for no-tillage variant was with 1.37 % higher than that recorded for the conventional tillage, plough tillage (5.91 vs. 5.83 t ha-1). Differences between tillage systems were significant in 4 out of the 8 seasons and were small when rainfall deficit occurred during the grain filling period. The 8-yr average grain yield for notillage maize cropping was with 5.29 % higher than that registered for conventional tillage - plough tillage (9.16 vs. 8.70 t ha-1). Difference between tillage systems were significant in 3 out of the 8 seasons and were small when rainfall deficit occurred during the grain filling period. The 8-yr average grain yield for soybean was significantly lower when no-tillage was applied as compared with conventional tillage (2.02 vs. 2.18 t ha-1), but differences between tillage systems were small and not significant in 6 out of the 8 seasons. In comparison to wheat and maize, no-tillage soybean had higher weed pressure. © 2016, National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea. All rights reserved. Source

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