National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea

Fundulea, Romania

National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea

Fundulea, Romania

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Cociu A.I.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2016

Tillage plays a key role in cropping system sustainability, due to its impact on soil properties, crop yields, economic returns, labour, and energy requirements. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of sub-soiling and tillage systems (two conservation tillage practices vs. the conventional tillage), under rain fed conditions, on the yield and its stability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. This long-term field experiment was initiated in 2007 and based on 3-yr crop rotation. Rainfall use efficiency of each crop was also evaluated. The 8-yr (2007-2015) average of winter wheat grain yield for no-tillage variant was with 1.37 % higher than that recorded for the conventional tillage, plough tillage (5.91 vs. 5.83 t ha-1). Differences between tillage systems were significant in 4 out of the 8 seasons and were small when rainfall deficit occurred during the grain filling period. The 8-yr average grain yield for notillage maize cropping was with 5.29 % higher than that registered for conventional tillage - plough tillage (9.16 vs. 8.70 t ha-1). Difference between tillage systems were significant in 3 out of the 8 seasons and were small when rainfall deficit occurred during the grain filling period. The 8-yr average grain yield for soybean was significantly lower when no-tillage was applied as compared with conventional tillage (2.02 vs. 2.18 t ha-1), but differences between tillage systems were small and not significant in 6 out of the 8 seasons. In comparison to wheat and maize, no-tillage soybean had higher weed pressure. © 2016, National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea. All rights reserved.


Cociu A.I.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

This research was aimed to identify the most suitable tillage systems for sustainable winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield levels, with best economic efficiency, assuring at the same time high quality soil physical and mechanical properties. The field experiments were carried out at Fundulea on a cambic chernozem soil type. Four tillage systems were tested to determine their influence on soil water content, soil macro-aggregates, resistance to soil penetration, wheat grain yield and its components, and crop economic efficiency. The following tillage systems were studied: traditional, with moldboard plough (TS); chisel plough tillage - primary tillage executed with chisel implement type without furrow over throwing (CS); disc/sweep tillage, providing a combined effect of vegetal remnants chopped with disc implements along with soil work with arrow type tools, without furrow over throwing (DS); No till (NT) - without any tillage work. In comparison with TS variant, soil conservation tillage systems (SCTS), as CS, DS and NT, increased the soil water content, recorded at seeding time, with 0.8%, 3.9%, and 4.1%, respectively. Soil water content, recorded at harvest time for CS and NT variants was 1.3% and 2.5% higher than in the case of TS (P<0.05). The NT variant significantly improved the soil structure by increasing the percentage of macro-aggregates of >2mm with 5.5%, and the mean weighted diameter of soil particles resulted by dry sieving, with 5.5% and 10%, respectively. Yield components recorded for soil conservation tillage systems (CS, DS, and NT) did not differ significantly from those evaluated for traditional system (TS), but the superior values of 1000 kernels weight and spike density suggest that these components contributed more to higher yields, obtained with SCTS, than grain weight per spike, number of grain per spike, and number of grains per square meter. With regards to economic efficiency, the outputs of all tested SCTS were significantly greater than the TS. The present study, revealing important advantages of soil conservation tillage systems over the traditional one, revealing the improvement of soil physical and mechanical properties, higher winter wheat yield levels and higher crop economic efficiency, invites farmers from South Plain of Romania to adopt soon these new progressive systems.


Neacsu A.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

Bread making industry and wheat markets have strict requirements for grain protein concentration (GPC), as there is a strong positive relationship between grain protein concentration and bread volume and texture. The objective of this paper was to identify genotypic differences between 23 Romanian and foreign winter wheat cultivars in GPC, as related with grain yield, and in GPC stability across environments. Samples from yield trials performed during 30 environments (4 locations, 3 years and different management systems), widely different in nitrogen availability and yield potential, were analyzed for grain protein content. Grain protein concentration was mainly determined by the environment, but average differences between cultivars were significant when tested against the genotype*environment interaction. More than 40% of the GPC variation between cultivars could be explained by the negative correlation with grain yield, but several cultivars had a higher GPC than expected based on their average yield. This suggests some possibilities in breeding for both grain yield and protein concentration. Large differences were found among tested cultivars for GPC stability, as expressed by the amplitude and the coefficient of variation. Romanian cultivars showed better GPC stability than the tested foreign cultivars. Neither the amplitude of variation, nor the coefficient of variation was correlated with average GPC, indicating possibilities in breeding for both higher and more stable GPC. Based on regressions of each cultivar GPC on average GPC of all cultivars, cultivars could be classified as more responsive to environments that were favorable to higher protein concentration in the grains (such as Capo, Exotic etc), or more able to maintain GPC in less favorable environments (such as Şimnic 50, Dropia, Flamura 85, Izvor, Glosa and Lovrin 34). Frequency of GPC value below an accepted minimum, which is important from farmer's point of view, closely correlated with the average GPC (r = -0.847 ooo), but some cultivars with similar averages had different number of cases below the required level, indicating additional possibilities of progress.


Mustatea P.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea | Saulescu N.N.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

Genetic trends in average, maximum and minimum grain yields and average values of yield components, drought resistance scores, Septoria scores, powdery mildew scores, days to heading, height, lodging score, test weight, protein concentration and protein yield of winter wheat cultivars released by NARDI Fundulea during the period 1993 to 2005 were estimated using data from direct comparisons in multiyear, multi-location trials in four regions of Romania. Significant genetic gains of 30 to 82 kg ha -1 year -1 for grain yield were observed in South, West and East Romania. Maximum yields also showed significant gains, while minimum yields showed no trend. The increase in grain yield was entirely due to an increase in the number of kernels per unit area, while the grain weight showed a slight reduction trend. The increased number of kernels was mainly due to larger spikes (more kernels/spike), but also to more spikes per unit area in two of the regions. Progress was noted in Septoria tritici, Erysiphe graminis, lodging and drought resistance, while no trend was evident in days to heading, height and test weight. Despite the well known negative correlation between grain protein concentration and grain yield, the protein percentage showed no trend in two regions and decreased in the other two, but relatively less than the observed increase in grain yield.


David M.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2016

Drought and osmotic stresses, that can both affect the plant in any vegetation stage, including seedling stage, may be characterized through water status measurements. Non-destructive remote sensing offers a viable alternative for screening many genotypes in a short time. Significant genotypic differences were previously demonstrated in seedlings growth response to water stress, but characterizing growth necessitated frequent measurements, which limited the usefullness of this method in routine screening of breeding material. In an attempt to avoid this limitation, we searched for genetic differences between wheat cultivars in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in seedlings exposed to water stress through gradual drying. 17 wheat genotypes, contrasting in drought resistance, were subjected to water stress by gradual drying of the substrate, during 27 days, using 1000 cm3 of soil, initially soaked with 300 ml of water. The cultivars were tested under controlled conditions in a growth chamber. We found significant differences between wheat genotypes for NDVI, as well as significant correlation between NDVI measured in water stress seedlings and osmotic adjustment estimated by pollen test, as well as between NDVI and an estimation of yield response to drought in the field. NDVI measured in seedlings exposed to gradual drying of the substrate can allow exploring and test a large number of genotypes and can be used for off-season direct comparison between cultivars. © 2016, National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea. All rights reserved.


Cociu A.I.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

This research was intended to estimate the influence of season temperatures and precipitations on maize grain yield in different several annual and perennial crop sequences (rotations) under rain-fed conditions, over 10 years, in the southern zone of Romania (Fundulea location). Maize produced less grain under higher summer temperature, but its yield increased with more summer rainfall. Crop rotation break with a perennial alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), as fertility restoration plot, increased very significantly the maize grain yield. The rotation breaking x year interaction was distinctly significant. The advantage of rotation breaking was lower during seasons with warmer springs. The highest mean maize grain yield, of 10.08 t ha-1, was recorded for the three year rotation, being with 0.66, 0.69, and 1.89 t ha-1 higher than those obtained with 4 year rotation, 2 year rotation, and monoculture, respectively. The benefit of rotation in terms of grain yield was greatest for maize during years with cool summers. Seasonal temperature and rainfall patterns influenced the effect of crop rotation and its breaking with a perennial crop on maize yield. This study represents a contribution to better understanding of maize plant physiology and its agronomic requirements for obtaining high grain yields in the specific soil and climate conditions of southern Romania.


Cociu A.I.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

Usually, the long-term investigations compare only average crop yields and overlook their stability. This research was intended to evaluate the influence of long-term rotation of annual crops and nitrogen fertilization regime, as well as rotation breaking with a perennial alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plot, on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields and their stability. Cropping systems were: (i) monoculture; (ii) 2 yr winter wheat - corn (Zea mays L.); (iii) 3 yr winter wheat - corn - soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr]); and (iv) 4 yr winter wheat - corn - sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) - peas (Pisum sativum L.). Nitrogen fertilization regimes were: N0 (no fertilization), N50 kg ha-1, N100 kg ha-1, and N150 kg ha-1, applied on an uniform P70 back-ground. Rotation breaking with a perennial alfalfa plot resulted in a significant winter wheat yield increase of 4.8%, when compared with the variant without rotation breaking, on which a mean winter wheat yield of 4.024 t ha-1 was obtained. The highest winter wheat mean yield was registered in the 4 year rotation variant (4.592 t ha-1) and the lowest - in the case of 2 yr rotation (3.656 t ha-1), being 8.5% and 16.7% lower than the yields obtained with monoculture and 3 yr rotation, respectively. Nitrogen fertilization determined a substantial yield increase, from 2.639 t ha-1 without N fertilization, to 4.808 ha-1 recorded with N100 kg ha-1. Large yield increases were recorded also with N50 kg ha-1 and N150 kg ha-1 fertilization, of 64.2% and 78.1%, respectively, compared to N0. Winter wheat yield trends in time (along years) for all variants (annual crop rotations, rotation breaking with alfalfa, and different nitrogen fertilization regimes) were significantly positive, with an average of 0.196 t ha-1 year-1. Rotation breaking with a perennial alfalfa plot resulted in 19.8% reduction of yield variation (as measured by the coefficient of variation - CV) in winter wheat, in all four rotation types. In the case of the four nitrogen fertilization regimes the CV reduction was of 27.6%. The CV's calculated for the mean winter wheat yields, recorded for the four nitrogen fertilization regimes, were higher at the 2 yr rotation variant: with 23.9% than with monoculture, 39.7% than with 3 yr, and 52.7% than with 4 yr rotations. The fertilization regime applied within the four rotation systems determined a significant reduction of wheat yield variation (CV) in comparison with N0 variant, by 67.1% than with N50 kg ha-1, by 76.8% than with N150 kg ha-1, and by 82.9% than with N100 kg ha-1. Regression analysis indicated that the introduction of a 3-4 year perennial alfalfa crop in rotation resulted in significant winter wheat yield stability gains at all four rotation systems, as well as at all nitrogen fertilization variants. The winter wheat yield was significantly more stable at 4 yr rotation than 3 yr rotation and monoculture. The least stable yields were registered with 2 yr rotation. Winter wheat yields were significantly less stable with N0, when compared with all three nitrogen fertilization variants, which showed similar yield stability. The highest and most stable yields were obtained with N100 kg ha-1. One of the main conclusions of this research is that winter wheat crop has to be placed in 3 or 4 year rotation systems. The 2 yr rotation, mainly winter wheat - corn, which has been widely practiced in small and medium sized farms, has to be interrupted after 3-4 cycles, or to be switched to at least a 3 yr rotation (ex. winter wheat - maize - grain legumes). Fertilization is one of the most important actions to be considered for increasing winter wheat yield, its stability and crop profitability. Introduction in rotation of a 3-4 year perennial alfalfa crop has a significant effect in this respect, bringing important nitrogen supplement and contributing to soil amelioration.


David M.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

Osmotic adjustment is one of the important traits, potentially useful for improving plant performance under drought. We tested pollen response to osmotic stress, produced by immersion in 55% or 65% PEG 6000 solutions, without or with addition of KCl, to estimate osmotic adjustment (OA), by using quantitative measurements of projected pollen cytoplasm area, in 43 wheat cultivars. We found large differences between cultivars, both for the effect of PEG solutions without KCl addition ("intrinsic OA") and for the effect of adding KCl to the PEG solutions ("osmolyte induced OA"). The total (overall) OA depended almost equally on the two OA components. The intrinsic and the osmolyte induced OA were not correlated, and this suggests that combining high levels of both mechanisms by breeding might allow genetic progress in drought resistance.


Croitoru A.-E.,Babes - Bolyai University | Holobaca I.-H.,Babes - Bolyai University | Lazar C.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea | Moldovan F.,Babes - Bolyai University | Imbroane A.,Babes - Bolyai University
Climatic Change | Year: 2012

Air temperature variability and trends in Romania were analysed using monthly, seasonal, and annual datasets. Temperature data of winter wheat season were also analysed. The Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimate, the sequential version of the Mann-Kendall test, the Pettitt test and spatial and temporal hierarchical cluster analyses were used. First, the datasets were checked for changing points. The 106-year period was divided into two long periods of 100 years each to verify the importance of a very short interval in changing of general trends; after that it was divided into three shorter periods of 35-36 years each. The main conclusions are as follows: the 6 years making up the difference between the two long periods are very important in the context of the recent global warming; the three shorter periods analysis indicate some fluctuations rather than continuous warming. The latest short period is the most relevant for global warming. Spatial hierarchical cluster analysis indicated the existence of two distinctive groups. One of them, which includes stations in the south-east part of the country, seems to be influenced by the Black Sea surface temperature. Temporal hierarchical cluster analysis reveals that annual data series have the closest relation with the summer data series. Further, the impact of temperature changes on winter wheat phenology was determined using a phenology simulation performed with the model from the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer v. 4. 0. 2. 0 platform. Earlier occurrences of anthesis and maturity were noticed for several regions in the country. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Cociu A.I.,National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Tillage systems for soil conservation (CT) have been extended in the last decades on a large scale all over the world, as an attractive alternative to the conventional practices, mainly due to their reduced cost of production and important contribution to soil and environment protection.This research was carried out at the National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea (NARDI), in 2008-2009 agricultural year (the second year of these technology testing) on a cambic chernozem soil type. The main objective was the evaluation of economic efficiency of different tillage systems for three crops: winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.], in rotation. The following tillage systems were studied: (I) traditional, with moldboard plough (TS); (II) chisel plough tillage - primary tillage executed with chisel implement type without furrow overthrowing (CS); (III) disk/sweep tillage (DS); (IV) strip till (ST) - a variant of "No till", applied to row crops. (V) No till (NT) - without any tillage work. The results of this research reveal important economicaladvantages of conservation tillage systems (CT) in comparison with traditional one (TS), for all three crops in rotation, maintaining similar yield levels. Thus, for winter wheat, fuel consumption was reduced with up to 58%, labor cost and time with up to 55%, and the cost per one tone of grain with up to 47%. For maize, fuel consumption was reduced with up to 69%, labor time with up to 61% and the cost per one tone of grain with up to 28%. For soybean, fuel consumption was reduced with up to 66%, labor time with up to 65%, and the cost per one tone of grain with up to 13%. It is considered that, beside enhancing economic efficiency by decreasing inputs for crop production without reducing outputs, the conservative tillage systems have an important contribution to soil preservation against erosion, and overall to the environment protection.

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