São José do Egito, Brazil
São José do Egito, Brazil

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Nonaka C.K.V.,National Agricultural Laboratory | Oliveira A.M.G.,MAPA National Agricultural Laboratory | Paiva C.R.,MAPA National Agricultural Laboratory | Almeida M.P.,MAPA National Agricultural Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

Brazil is one of the most important countries as a producer and exporter of cattle and poultry. In 2009 cattle accounted for 30% of the export market and 41.4% for poultry meat. The Brazilian National Residues and Contaminants Control Plan (PNCRC) follows the guidelines set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and checks compliance maximum residue limits (MRLs) to ensure the quality of these commodities. Kidney samples (n = 2978) were analysed between January 2008 and December 2009. Fifteen antibiotics of the macrolide and aminoglycoside groups (clindamycin, eritromycin, lincomycin, tylmicosin, tylosin, amikacin, apramycin, dihydrostreptomycin, gentamycin, higromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tobramycin) were determined by a microbiological screening method (FAST) and confirmed/quantified using liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS). In 2008, 1459 samples were analysed by a screening test and liquid chromatography with only one sample (0.07%) exceeded Brazilian legislation limits (>MRL). In 2009, 1519 samples were analysed and none exceeding Brazilian legislation limits (>MRL). The slaughterhouses of 16 states were monitored during the year of 2008, and 18 states were monitored in 2009, being the major producing states most sampled by the PNCRC. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Rezende C.P.,National Agricultural Laboratory | Almeida M.P.,National Agricultural Laboratory | Brito R.B.,National Agricultural Laboratory | Nonaka C.K.,National Agricultural Laboratory | Leite M.O.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

A multi-residue method for the determination of the β-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, cefazolin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V and the tetracyclines chlotetracycline, tetracycline and oxytetracycline was optimised and validated in bovine muscle. The method is based on the extraction of the residues from muscle using water/acetonitrile (2/8, v/v) with subsequent use of dispersive solid-phase C18 and hexane for purification. Extracts were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS/MS) coupled with the mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+) for all analytes. The method was validated according to the requirements of European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The validation results were obtained within the MRL range of 0-1.5 of the MRL, with recoveries varying from 90% to 110% and CV < 20% (n = 54), except for cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and nafcillin. However, matrix interference was observed. The decision limit (CCα) ranged from 10% to 15% of the MRL. The uncertainty measurement was estimated based on both bottom-up and top-down strategies and the uncertainty values were found to be lower than 20% of the MRL. The method has a simple extraction procedure whereby analytes are separated with reasonable resolutions in a single 11-min chromatographic run. According to the validation results, this method is suitable for monitoring β-lactams and tetracyclines according to National Program for Residue and Contaminant Control - Brazil (NPRC-Brazil) in bovine muscle. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Panzenhagen P.H.N.,Federal University of Fluminense | Aguiar W.S.,Federal University of Fluminense | Gouvea R.,Federal University of Fluminense | de Oliveira A.M.G.,National Agricultural Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2016

This study investigated the efficiency of an enrofloxacin ELISA test kit to detect the presence of enrofloxacin residues in broiler tissues compared with LC-MS/MS. Broiler tissues from 72 samples consisting of 60 breast muscle, six pools of livers (500 g each) and six pools of kidneys (500 g each) were obtained from six different slaughterhouses. Breast muscle from 10 carcasses and pools of livers and kidneys from approximately 200 carcasses of the same flock were collected from each slaughterhouse. ELISA and HPLC were used to identify and quantify the contamination of the samples with enrofloxacin. A total of 72% of the analysed samples contained enrofloxacin residues detected by the ELISA and 22.2% were detected by LC-MS/MS. The mean values of enrofloxacin contamination found in chicken breast by ELISA and HPLC were 8.63 and 12.25 μg kg–1, respectively. None of the samples exceeded the maximum limit of 100 μg kg–1 by both methods set by the European Union as well as the Brazilian Agriculture Ministry. All positive samples for enrofloxacin residues detected by LC-MS/MS were also positive by ELISA. These data confirm the efficiency of the ELISA test, and suggest its use as a screening method for enrofloxacin residues in poultry tissues due to its quick results, low price and ease of applicability. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Molognoni L.,National Agricultural Laboratory | Molognoni L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Valese A.C.,National Agricultural Laboratory | Valese A.C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

A simple extraction, rapid routine method for the simultaneous determination of sorbic acid, natamycin and tylosin in Dulce de leche, a traditional South American product, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and fully validated. The limits of detection were set to 24.41 mg kg-1 (sorbic acid), 0.10 mg kg-1 (natamycin) and 2 μg kg-1 (tylosin). Recoveries ranged from 95% to 110%. Proportionally, internal standardization was more efficient than external standard, resulting in a smaller measurement of uncertainty. In total, 35 commercial samples from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay have been assessed. The proposed method was tested on other dairy desserts, demonstrating to be versatile. Although tylosin was not detected in any sample, a high rate of non-compliance was found, with 67.39% of samples above the maximum allowed for sorbic acid and a maximum concentration of 2105.36 ± 178.60 mg kg-1. In two samples, natamycin was irregularly found. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Federal University of Minas Gerais and National Agricultural Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2016

This study aimed to survey captive wild boars for antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in registered farms. Serum samples (n=1305) were collected from 90-day-old wild boars from 118 farms of the Brazilian South-east region, including the states of Minas Gerais and So Paulo, and South region, including the states of Paran, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. All herds (100%) presented reactive animals, in varying numbers and from low-to-high antibody titres, with the occurrence ranging from 82 to 89%. Considering farms, the average prevalence was of 84.9% (P<0.05) and ranged from 54.1 to 94.95%. Regarding the geographic regions studied, the prevalence was of 100%, with PCV2 antibodies detected in wild boars of all regions. This study provides the first evidence of PCV2 antibodies in captive wild boars in Brazil.


PubMed | Federal University of Santa Catarina and National Agricultural Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

A simple extraction, rapid routine method for the simultaneous determination of sorbic acid, natamycin and tylosin in Dulce de leche, a traditional South American product, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and fully validated. The limits of detection were set to 24.41mgkg(-1) (sorbic acid), 0.10mgkg(-1) (natamycin) and 2gkg(-1) (tylosin). Recoveries ranged from 95% to 110%. Proportionally, internal standardization was more efficient than external standard, resulting in a smaller measurement of uncertainty. In total, 35 commercial samples from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay have been assessed. The proposed method was tested on other dairy desserts, demonstrating to be versatile. Although tylosin was not detected in any sample, a high rate of non-compliance was found, with 67.39% of samples above the maximum allowed for sorbic acid and a maximum concentration of 2105.36178.60mgkg(-1). In two samples, natamycin was irregularly found.


PubMed | National Agricultural Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment | Year: 2012

A multi-residue method for the determination of the -lactam antibiotics ampicillin, cefazolin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V and the tetracyclines chlotetracycline, tetracycline and oxytetracycline was optimised and validated in bovine muscle. The method is based on the extraction of the residues from muscle using water/acetonitrile (2/8, v/v) with subsequent use of dispersive solid-phase C18 and hexane for purification. Extracts were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS/MS) coupled with the mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+) for all analytes. The method was validated according to the requirements of European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The validation results were obtained within the MRL range of 0-1.5 of the MRL, with recoveries varying from 90% to 110% and CV < 20% (n = 54), except for cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and nafcillin. However, matrix interference was observed. The decision limit (CC) ranged from 10% to 15% of the MRL. The uncertainty measurement was estimated based on both bottom-up and top-down strategies and the uncertainty values were found to be lower than 20% of the MRL. The method has a simple extraction procedure whereby analytes are separated with reasonable resolutions in a single 11-min chromatographic run. According to the validation results, this method is suitable for monitoring -lactams and tetracyclines according to National Program for Residue and Contaminant Control - Brazil (NPRC-Brazil) in bovine muscle.


PubMed | Federal University of Fluminense and National Agricultural Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment | Year: 2016

This study investigated the efficiency of an enrofloxacin ELISA test kit to detect the presence of enrofloxacin residues in broiler tissues compared with LC-MS/MS. Broiler tissues from 72 samples consisting of 60 breast muscle, six pools of livers (500 g each) and six pools of kidneys (500 g each) were obtained from six different slaughterhouses. Breast muscle from 10 carcasses and pools of livers and kidneys from approximately 200 carcasses of the same flock were collected from each slaughterhouse. ELISA and HPLC were used to identify and quantify the contamination of the samples with enrofloxacin. A total of 72% of the analysed samples contained enrofloxacin residues detected by the ELISA and 22.2% were detected by LC-MS/MS. The mean values of enrofloxacin contamination found in chicken breast by ELISA and HPLC were 8.63 and 12.25 g kg(-1), respectively. None of the samples exceeded the maximum limit of 100 g kg(-1) by both methods set by the European Union as well as the Brazilian Agriculture Ministry. All positive samples for enrofloxacin residues detected by LC-MS/MS were also positive by ELISA. These data confirm the efficiency of the ELISA test, and suggest its use as a screening method for enrofloxacin residues in poultry tissues due to its quick results, low price and ease of applicability.

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